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The MAC of halothane, isoflurane, and enflurane was determined using the tail-clamp technique in pregnant female, nonpregnant female, and male Swiss Webster mice (n = 216) and Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 112). Mean MAC values (+/-SD) for halothane, isoflurane, and enflurane in mice were 0.95 +/- 0.07%, 1.34 +/- 0.10%, and 1.95 +/- 0.16%, respectively; values(More)
Sentinel lymph node (SLN) status is highly predictive of overall axillary lymph node involvement in breast cancer. Historically, SLN-positive patients have undergone axillary lymph node dissection in a second surgery. Intraoperative SLN analysis could reduce the cost and complications of a second surgery; however, existing histopathological methods lack(More)
The commercially available volatile anesthetic fluroxene (2,2,2-trifluoroethyl vinyl ether) which contains the stabilizer N-phenyl-1-napthylamine, was tested for mutagenicity using four strains of S. typhimurium, TA1535, TA1537, TA98 and TA100, and one strain of E. coli, WP2. In addition, purified fluroxene; N-phenyl-1-napthylamine; trifluoroethanol, a(More)
We recently reported that rat embryos cultured from the presomite stage in a medium containing the alpha-1 adrenergic agonist, phenylephrine, have a high incidence of situs inversus. In the present study, we have determined more precisely the critical period of development when situs inversus is induced. Rat embryos were harvested at 8 AM on Day 9 of(More)
The effect of phenylephrine, an alpha-1 adrenergic agonist, on development of body asymmetry was studied using a rat whole embryo culture system. Embryos were explanted at the presomite stage, cultured in 100% rat serum containing various concentrations of phenylephrine, and examined at the 20-25 somite stage for sidedness of asymmetric body structures,(More)
The mutagenicity of halothane was tested in an in-vitro microbial assay system employing two histidine-dependent mutants of Salmonella typhimurium, TA98 and TA100, Halothane in concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 30 per cent was incubated with bacteria in the presence or absence of a metabolic activation system prepared from either rat liver treated with(More)
A simplified in-vivo bioassay system was used to test the carcinogenic potential of halothane in Swiss/ICR mice. Halothane was tested only at its maximum tolerated dose, and histologic examination was performed only on tumor masses and other grossly abnormal tissues found at necropsy. Two groups, each of 15 timed pregnant mice, were exposed to either(More)
A total of 305 timed-pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed for 6 h a day on each of three consecutive days in one of three periods, i.e., pregnancy days 14-16, 11-13, or 8-10, either to 0.55 times the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of nitrous oxide (75%) or to 0.75 MAC of halothane (0.8%), isoflurane (1.05%) or enflurane (1.65%); an additional 232(More)
The mutagenic effects of several inhaled anesthetic agents were investigated using the sex-linked recessive lethal assay in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. Male wild-type flies were exposed for 1 hr to either halothane, enflurane, isoflurane, or fluroxene at vapor concentrations of 1 or 2% or to nitrous oxide at concentrations of 40 or 80%. Control(More)