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Cationized albumin (pI greater than 8), unlike native albumin (pI approximately 4), enters cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) rapidly from blood. This suggests that a specific uptake mechanism for cationized albumin may exist at the brain capillary wall, i.e. the blood-brain barrier. Isolated bovine brain capillaries rapidly bound cationized [3H]albumin and(More)
Hormones and drugs are known to be available for transport into brain and liver in vivo from the circulating albumin-bound pool. An albumin receptor-mediated mechanism is one possible way in which the transport of ligands from the circulating albumin-bound pool into the tissue may be catalyzed. The albumin receptor model was tested for brain in the present(More)
A new model system for characterizing the human brain capillary, which makes up the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in vivo, is described in these studies and is applied initially to the investigation of the human BBB insulin receptor. Autopsy brains were obtained from the pathologist between 22-36 h postmortem and were used to isolate human brain microvessels(More)
The kinetics of binding and endocytosis of 125I-human holotransferrin by isolated human brain capillaries was examined using this system as a model of the human blood-brain barrier (BBB). Both binding and endocytosis of the peptide by human brain capillaries was temperature-dependent and the binding was saturated by holotransferrin, but not by insulin,(More)
Somatostatin (SRIF) is a putative peptide neurotransmitter that may interact with brain capillaries following neurosecretion of the peptide. The present studies investigate the binding and metabolism of SRIF analogues in isolated bovine brain microvessels. 125I-[Tyr1]SRIF was rapidly degraded by capillary aminopeptidase with a half-time of approximately 3(More)
The development of methods for the isolation of brain capillaries and brain capillary plasma membranes makes possible biochemical studies of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), which is made up of brain capillaries. Studies aimed at assessing the role of the BBB in the pathogenesis of specific neurologic diseases, e.g., Alzheimer's disease or multiple sclerosis,(More)
The article addresses the potential impact of functional brain imaging (functional magnetic resonance imaging and positron-emission tomography) on surrogate end-of-life decision-making in light of varying state-law definitions of consciousness, some of which define awareness behaviorally and others functionally. The article concludes that, in light of(More)
The cardinal lesions of Alzheimer's disease are neurofibrillary tangles, senile neuritic plaques, and vascular amyloid, the latter generally involving cortical arteries and small arterioles. All three lesions are composed of amyloid-like, beta-pleated sheet fibrils. Recently, a 4,200-dalton peptide has been isolated from extraparenchymal meningeal vessels,(More)
A new strategy for peptide delivery through the brain capillary wall, i.e., the blood-brain barrier (BBB), is the synthesis of chimeric peptides which are formed by the covalent coupling of a non-transportable peptide (e.g., beta-endorphin) to a transportable peptide that undergoes receptor- or absorptive-mediated transcytosis at the BBB. beta-endorphin was(More)
To begin elucidating the biochemical basis of the polarized membrane features of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), a series of immunochemical and immunoperoxidase studies were initiated with bovine brain microvessels that make up the BBB in vivo. A rabbit antiserum was prepared against isolated bovine brain BBB plasma membranes. The bovine microvessel plasma(More)