Jon A Frederick

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OBJECT The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the level of a spinal lesion is associated with variations in anomalous brain development and neurobehavioral outcomes in children suffering from the meningomyelocele form of spina bifida and hydrocephalus (SBM-H). METHODS Two hundred sixty-eight children with SBM-H were divided into upper (T-12 and(More)
Children with spina bifida meningomyelocele and hydrocephalus (SBM) have congenital dysmorphology of the midbrain and thinning of the posterior cortex, brain regions associated with the control of covert orienting. We studied cued covert orienting in 92 children with SBM, and 40 age-matched typically developing controls. Cues were of three types: exogenous(More)
The high affinity of 5-HT6 receptors for atypical antipsychotic drugs, and their localization in limbic and cortical regions of the brain, suggest that they might play a role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. To determine if this receptor is regulated by antipsychotics, rats were injected with clozapine (20 mg/kg/day), haloperidol (2 mg/kg/day), or(More)
Horizontal and vertical line bisection was studied in 129 children and adolescents between 8 and 19 years of age, one group (n=32) of typically developing controls and one group (n=97) with spina bifida (SBM), a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with dysmorphology of the corpus callosum, posterior cortex, and midbrain. For each participant, structural(More)
The cerebellum is important for perceptual and motor timing in the mature brain, but the timing function of the cerebellum in the immature brain is less well understood. We investigated timing in children with spina bifida meningomyelocele (SB), a neural tube defect that involves cerebellar dysgenesis, and in age-matched controls. Specifically, we studied(More)
Inhibition of return (IOR) refers to an increase in time to react to a target in a previously attended location. Children with spina bifida meningomyelocele (SBM) and hydrocephalus have congenital dysmorphology of the midbrain, a brain region associated with the control of covert orienting in general and with IOR in particular. The authors studied(More)
Although substance-related disorders are heritable, the genetic factors contributing to vulnerability to these disorders are expected to be complex. Nonetheless, identifying genes underlying this vulnerability and understanding their relationship with environmental factors and behavior holds the promise of dramatic advances in diagnosis, prevention, and(More)
The cerebellum is part of a neural circuit involved in procedural motor learning. We examined how congenital cerebellar malformations affect mirror drawing performance, a procedural learning task that involves learning to trace the outline of a star while looking at the reflection of the star in a mirror. Participants were 88 children with spina bifida(More)
The effects of audio-visual stimulation at the dominant alpha frequency and twice dominant alpha frequency on the EEG were investigated. An eyes-closed baseline EEG determined each subject's dominant alpha frequency. Subjects were stimulated at their dominant alpha frequency and at twice dominant alpha frequency for 20 min on two occasions. A 30-min(More)