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Cellular properties are influenced by complex factors inherent to their microenvironments. While oxygen deprivation (hypoxia) occurs in tumours because of rapid cell proliferation and aberrant blood vessel formation, embryonic cells develop in a naturally occurring hypoxic environment. Cells respond to hypoxia by stabilizing hypoxia-inducible factors(More)
Stem cells reside in specialized microenvironments or 'niches' that regulate their function. In vitro studies using hypoxic culture conditions (< 5% O 2) have revealed strong regulatory links between O 2 availability and functions of stem and precursor cells 1–6. Although some stem cells are perivascular, others may occupy hypoxic niches and be regulated by(More)
Members of the phylum Apicomplexa include the causative agents of numerous important human and life-stock diseases. Apicomplexans are obligate intracellular pathogens and have adapted to a diverse range of hosts and host cells. A key component to the parasite's success is its ability to secure the supply of essential nutrients and metabolic building blocks.(More)
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