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OBJECT Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) is a hematopoietic cytokine that induces undifferentiated stem cells from the bone marrow (BM) into the peripheral blood. Stem cell factor (SCF) is also a hematopoietic cytokine that stimulates the differentiation and proliferation of neural stem cells and has neuroprotective effects. In cerebrally(More)
BACKGROUND The gene encoding c-fos is an important factor in the pathogenesis of joint disease in patients with osteoarthritis. However, it is unknown whether the signal mechanism of c-fos acts in intervertebral disc (IVD) cells. We investigated whether c-fos is activated in relation to mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and the protein kinase C(More)
The morphologic changes were investigated in the ventral and dorsal spinal nerve roots in a strain of white leghorn chickens that genetically was predisposed to have idiopathic scoliosis. In the ventral spinal roots in chickens with scoliotic curves, small myelinated fibers were increased in number and appeared in clusters. The number of small fibers did(More)
Despite the high prevalence of intervertebral disc disease, little is known about changes in intervertebral disc cells and their regenerative potential with ageing and intervertebral disc degeneration. Here we identify populations of progenitor cells that are Tie2 positive (Tie2+) and disialoganglioside 2 positive (GD2+), in the nucleus pulposus from mice(More)
A major goal of current human genome-wide studies is to identify the genetic basis of complex disorders. However, the availability of an unbiased, reliable, cost efficient and comprehensive methodology to analyze the entire genome for complex disease association is still largely lacking or problematic. Therefore, we have developed a practical and efficient(More)
OBJECT Inhibition of remyelination is part of the complex problem of persistent dysfunction after spinal cord injury (SCI), and residual myelin debris may be a factor that inhibits remyelination. Phagocytosis by microglial cells and by macrophages that migrate from blood vessels plays a major role in the clearance of myelin debris. The object of this study(More)
INTRODUCTION Increased expression of the proinflammatory cytokine TNF-α in intervertebral discs (IVDs) leads to inflammation, which results in progressive IVD degeneration. We have previously reported that activation of Wnt-β-catenin (hereafter called Wnt) signaling suppresses the proliferation of nucleus pulposus cells and induces cell senescence,(More)
OBJECT The purpose of this study was to identify risk factors for surgical site infection after spine surgery, noting the amount of saline used for intraoperative irrigation to minimize wound contamination. METHODS The authors studied 223 consecutive spine operations from January 2006 through December 2006 at our institute. For a case to meet inclusion(More)
Some treatments for full thickness defects of the articular cartilage, such as the transplantation of cultured chondrocytes have already been performed. However, in order to overcome osteoarthritis, we must further study the partial thickness defects of articular cartilage. It is much more difficult to repair a partial thickness defect because few repair(More)
The goal of the study was to investigate bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) control of the expression of beta1,3-glucuronosyl transferase 1 (GlcAT-1), an important regulator of chondroitin sulfate synthesis in cells of the nucleus pulposus. Treatment with both growth factors resulted in induction of GlcAT-1(More)