Johnny M. Vogels

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Quantized vortices play a key role in superfluidity and superconductivity. We have observed the formation of highly ordered vortex lattices in a rotating Bose-condensed gas. These triangular lattices contained over 100 vortices with lifetimes of several seconds. Individual vortices persisted up to 40 seconds. The lattices could be generated over a wide(More)
Bose-Einstein condensates of sodium atoms have been prepared in optical and magnetic traps in which the energy-level spacing in one or two dimensions exceeds the interaction energy between atoms, realizing condensates of lower dimensionality. The crossover into two-dimensional and one-dimensional condensates was observed by a change in aspect ratio and by(More)
We studied the nucleation of vortices in a Bose-Einstein condensate stirred by a laser beam. The vortex cores were observed using time-of-flight absorption imaging. Depending on the stirrer size, either discrete resonances or a broad response was visible as the stir frequency was varied. Stirring beams small compared to the condensate size generated(More)
By colliding two Bose-Einstein condensates, we have observed strong bosonic stimulation of the elastic scattering process. When a weak input beam was applied as a seed, it was amplified by a factor of 20. This large gain atomic four-wave mixing resulted in the generation of two macroscopically occupied pair-correlated atomic beams.
We study the collapse of large homogeneous Bose-Einstein condensates due to intrinsic attractive interactions. We observe the amplification of a local instability by seeding a momentum state p and suddenly switching the scattering length negative via a Feshbach resonance. We also observe the appearance of atoms in the conjugate momentum state as required by(More)
We describe the setup to create a large Bose-Einstein condensate containing more than 120 x 10(6) atoms. In the experiment a thermal beam is slowed by a Zeeman slower and captured in a dark-spot magneto-optical trap (MOT). A typical dark-spot MOT in our experiments contains 2.0 x 10(10) atoms with a temperature of 320 microK and a density of about 1.0 x(More)
The efficiency of evaporative cooling, which is used for the creation of a Bose-Einstein condensate, depends strongly on the number of particles at the start of the evaporation. A high efficiency can be reached by filling the magneto-optical trap with a large number of atoms and subsequently transferring these atoms to the magnetic trap as efficiently as(More)
We describe a method that is well suited to analysis of the bound states of the alkali-metal dimers near their dissociation limit. The method combines inverse perturbation theory, coupled-channel bound-state theory, and the accumulated phase method to treat the short-range part of the molecular potentials. We apply this method to analyze the bound-state(More)
We determine the energies of twelve vibrational levels lying within 20 GHz of the lowest dissociation limit of Rb2 with two-color photoassociation spectroscopy of ultracold 85Rb atoms. The levels lie in an energy range for which singlet and triplet states are mixed by the hyperfine interaction. We carry out a coupled channels bound state analysis of the(More)
We study the nondegenerate parametric amplifier for matter waves, implemented by colliding two Bose-Einstein condensates. The coherence of the amplified waves is shown by observing high contrast interference with a reference wave and by reversing the amplification process. Since our experiments also place limits on all known sources of decoherence, we infer(More)