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OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to screen for and quantify the neurotoxic amino acid beta-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) in a cohort of autopsy specimens taken from Alzheimer's disease (AD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Huntington's disease (HD), and non-neurological controls. BMAA is produced by cyanobacteria found in a variety of freshwater,(More)
Ibogaine is a naturally occurring compound with purported antiaddictive properties. When administered to primates, ibogaine is rapidly o-demethylated to form the metabolite 12-hydroxyibogamine (noribogaine). Peak blood levels of noribogaine exceed those of ibogaine, and noribogaine persists in the bloodstream for at least 1 day. Very few studies have(More)
The putative anti-addiction alkaloid ibogaine and its principal metabolite 12-hydroxyibogamine appear to act at the (+)-5 methyl-10,11,dihydro-5H- dibenzo[a,d]cycloheten-5-10-imine maleate (MK-801) binding site in the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-receptor cation channel. This conclusion is based on findings that both compounds competitively displaced(More)
In contrast to mammalian brain, which exhibits rapid degeneration during anoxia, the brains of certain species of turtles show an extraordinary capacity to survive prolonged anoxia. The decrease in energy expenditure shown by the anoxic turtle brain is likely to be a key factor for anoxic survival. The "channel arrest" hypothesis proposes that ion channels,(More)
Ibogaine (IBO) is a plant-derived alkaloid that is being evaluated as a possible medication for substance use disorders. When administered peripherally to monkeys and humans, IBO is rapidly converted to an o-demethylated metabolite, 12-hydroxyibogamine (NORIBO). We have found in rats that peak blood levels of NORIBO can exceed those of the parent compound,(More)
The distribution of radioiodinated N-methyl-4-(4-hydroxy-3-iodobenzyl)-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MHTP), an analog of the reportedly nontoxic N-methyl-4-benzyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine, (4-homo-MPTP), has been studied in the primate. [123I]MHTP-derived radioactivity exhibited a progressive accumulation and prolonged retention within the primate eye.(More)
1. Individuals display significant differences in their levels of expression of the dopamine transporter (DAT; SLC6A3). These differences in DAT are strong candidates to contribute to individual differences in motor, mnemonic and reward functions. To identify "cis"-acting genetic mechanisms for these individual differences, we have sought variants in 5'(More)
Transferrin is a glycoprotein that functions primarily to deliver iron to the cell. Recent studies suggest that the transferrin receptor mediates the intracellular delivery and transport of iron bound to transferrin in the CNS. Iron-catalyzed free radical generation has been proposed as a possible cause of nigral cell death in Parkinson's disease. Our(More)
Transferrin receptors were characterized with 125I-ferrotransferrin on membrane fractions prepared from the rodent forebrain. The distribution of transferrin receptors in the rat brain was investigated further by in vitro autoradiography. Saturation binding analysis revealed an apparent single class of sites with a dissociation constant of 2 nM and a(More)
Noribogaine is formed in vivo by the O-demethylation of the indole alkaloid ibogaine. We report here that noribogaine acts as a full agonist at the mu-opioid receptor. Noribogaine-stimulated guanylyl 5'gamma-[35S]thio]triphosphate ([35S]GTPgammaS) was studied in rat thalamic membranes to measure activation of guanine nucleotide binding proteins (G-proteins)(More)