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Tactile performance of human fingertips is associated with activity of the nerve endings and sensitivity of the soft tissue within the fingertip to the static and dynamic skin indentation. The nerve endings in the fingertips sense the stress/strain states developed within the soft tissue, which are affected by the material properties of the tissues. The(More)
Recently, the flagellin proteins of Methanococcus maripaludis were found to harbour an N-linked tetrasaccharide composed of N-acetylgalactosamine, di-acetylated glucuronic acid, an acetylated and acetamidino-modified mannuronic acid linked to threonine, and a novel terminal sugar(More)
The structure of pili from the archaeon Methanococcus maripaludis is unlike that of any bacterial pili. However, genetic analysis of the genes involved in the formation of these pili has been lacking until this study. Pili were isolated from a nonflagellated (ΔflaK) mutant and shown by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to consist(More)
Glycosylation is a posttranslational modification utilized in all three domains of life. Compared to eukaryotic and bacterial systems, knowledge of the archaeal processes involved in glycosylation is limited. Recently, Methanococcus voltae flagellin proteins were found to have an N-linked trisaccharide necessary for proper flagellum assembly. Current(More)
In Archaea, the preflagellin peptidase (a type IV prepilin-like peptidase designated FlaK in Methanococcus voltae and Methanococcus maripaludis) is the enzyme that cleaves the N-terminal signal peptide from preflagellins. In methanogens and several other archaeal species, the typical flagellin signal peptide length is 11 to 12 amino acids, while in other(More)
Experimental evidence suggests that cells are extremely sensitive to their mechanical environment and react directly to mechanical stimuli. At present, it is technically difficult to measure fluid pressure, stress, and strain in cells, and to determine the time-dependent deformation of chondrocytes. For this reason, there are no data in the published(More)
Extended exposure to mechanical vibration has been related to many vascular, sensorineural and musculoskeletal disorders of the hand-arm system, frequently termed 'hand-arm vibration syndrome' (HAVS). A two-dimensional, nonlinear finite element model of a fingertip is developed to study the stress and strain fields of the soft tissue under dynamic loading,(More)
A comprehensive understanding of the complex biodynamic response of the human fingers-hand-arm system may help researchers determine the causation of injuries arising from hand-transmitted vibration. This study theoretically demonstrates that the mechanical impedance (MI) in a hand power grip, as a measure of the biodynamic response of the system, can be(More)
Vibrotactile perception threshold measurement has been widely used to diagnose the severity of peripheral neuropathy associated with hand-arm vibration syndrome and sensory losses in stroke and diabetic patients. The vibration perception threshold is believed to be influenced by many factors, such as contact force and vibration frequency. The present study(More)
Previous experimental observations indicated that the contact interactions between finger and tool handle interfere with the grasp stability, affecting the comfort and manipulations of handheld tools. From a biomechanical point of view, the curvature of the contact surface should affect the contact pressure and contact area, and thereby the comfort and(More)