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Channelrhodopsin 2 (ChR2), a light-activated nonselective cationic channel from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, has become a useful tool to excite neurons into which it is transfected. The other ChR from Chlamydomonas, ChR1, has attracted less attention because of its proton-selective permeability. By making chimeras of the transmembrane domains of ChR1 and(More)
Channelrhodopsins (ChRs) are used to optogenetically depolarize neurons. We engineered a variant of ChR, denoted red-activatable ChR (ReaChR), that is optimally excited with orange to red light (λ ∼590-630 nm) and offers improved membrane trafficking, higher photocurrents and faster kinetics compared to existing red-shifted ChRs. Red light is less scattered(More)
Channelrhodopsins (ChRs) are light-activated channels from algae that provide these organisms with fast sensors to visible light for phototaxis. Since its discovery, channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) has been used as a research tool to depolarize membranes of excitable cells with light. Subsequent chimeragenesis, mutagenesis and bioinformatic approaches have(More)
  • Sadegh Nabavi, Rocky Fox, Christophe D. Proulx, John Y. Lin, Roger Y. Tsien, Roberto Malinow
  • 2014
It has been proposed that memories are encoded by modification of synaptic strengths through cellular mechanisms such as long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD). However, the causal link between these synaptic processes and memory has been difficult to demonstrate. Here we show that fear conditioning, a type of associative memory, can be(More)
Hand motion capturing is one of the most important parts of gesture interfaces. Many current approaches to this task generally involve a formidable nonlinear optimization problem in a large search space. Motion capturing can be achieved more cost-efficiently when considering the motion constraints of a hand. Although some constraints can be represented as(More)
Multibody structure from motion could be solved by the factorization approach. However, the noise measurements would make the segmentation daficult when analyzing the shape interaction matrix. This paper presents an orthogonal subspace decomposition and grouping technique t o approach such a problem. W e decompose the object shape spaces into signal(More)
Tracking the articulated hand motion in a video sequence is a challenging problem in which the main difficulty arises from the complexity of searching for an optimal motion estimate in a high dimensional configuration space induced by the articulated motion. Considering that the complexities of this problem may be reduced by learning the lower dimensional(More)
Fluorescence imaging is an attractive method for monitoring neuronal activity. A key challenge for optically monitoring voltage is development of sensors that can give large and fast responses to changes in transmembrane potential. We now present fluorescent sensors that detect voltage changes in neurons by modulation of photo-induced electron transfer(More)
This mini-symposium aims to provide an integrated perspective on recent developments in optogenetics. Research in this emerging field combines optical methods with targeted expression of genetically encoded, protein-based probes to achieve experimental manipulation and measurement of neural systems with superior temporal and spatial resolution. The(More)