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Defining the gene products that play an essential role in an organism's functional repertoire is vital to understanding the system level organization of living cells. We used a genetic footprinting technique for a genome-wide assessment of genes required for robust aerobic growth of Escherichia coli in rich media. We identified 620 genes as essential and(More)
Phytoplasmas ("Candidatus Phytoplasma," class Mollicutes) cause disease in hundreds of economically important plants and are obligately transmitted by sap-feeding insects of the order Hemiptera, mainly leafhoppers and psyllids. The 706,569-bp chromosome and four plasmids of aster yellows phytoplasma strain witches' broom (AY-WB) were sequenced and compared(More)
Escherichia coli uses fatty acids as a sole carbon and energy source during aerobic growth by means of the enzymes encoded by the fad regulon. We report that this bacterium can also grow on fatty acids under anaerobic conditions provided that a terminal respiratory electron acceptor such as nitrate is available. This anaerobic utilization pathway is(More)
The use of phosphoenolpyruvate plus pyruvate kinase as an ATP-generating system in the assay for glutamine synthetase activity via the formation of gamma-glutamylhydroxamate from glutamate and hydroxylamine with crude tissue preparations is shown to give values far in excess of the true glutamine synthetase activity of the tissue. This is due to the(More)
Rates of ammonia formation from six amino acids by hepatocytes and liver mitochondria were compared with the rate of ammonia excretion by individual fish. Glutamine and asparagine are the most ammoniagenic substrates for hepatocytes and glutamine and glutamate, for isolated liver mitochondria. The main site of ammonia release is the mitochondrion. Ammonia(More)
The regulation by two transcriptional activators of flagellar expression (FlhD and FlhC) and the chemotaxis methyl-accepting protein Aer was studied with glass slide DNA microarrays. An flhD::Kan insertion and an aer deletion were independently introduced into two Escherichia coli K-12 strains, and the effects upon gene regulation were investigated.(More)
The increase in drug-resistant pathogenic bacteria has created an urgent demand for new antibiotics. Among the more attractive targets for the development of new antibacterial compounds are the enzymes of fatty acid biosynthesis. Although a number of potent inhibitors of microbial fatty acid biosynthesis have been discovered, few of these are clinically(More)
Microorganisms respond to environmental changes by reprogramming their metabolism primarily through altered patterns of gene expression. DNA microarrays provide a tool for exploiting microorganisms as living sensors of their environment. The potential of DNA microarrays to reflect availability of nutrient components during fermentations on complex media was(More)
Biochemically, the syntrophic bacteria constitute the missing link in our understanding of anaerobic flow of carbon in the biosphere. The completed genome sequence of Syntrophus aciditrophicus SB, a model fatty acid- and aromatic acid-degrading syntrophic bacterium, provides a glimpse of the composition and architecture of the electron transfer and(More)