John Whitehead

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Many clinical trials yield data on an ordered categorical scale such as very good, good, moderate, poor. Under the assumption of proportional odds, such data can be analysed using techniques of logistic regression. In simple comparisons of two treatments this approach becomes equivalent to the Mann-Whitney test. In this paper sample size formulae consistent(More)
Meta-analysis provides a systematic and quantitative approach to the summary of results from randomized studies. Whilst many authors have published actual meta-analyses concerning specific therapeutic questions, less has been published about comprehensive methodology. This article presents a general parametric approach, which utilizes efficient score(More)
In this paper a new class of group sequential procedures for clinical trials is introduced, and the use of these procedures is illustrated by reference to a recently completed comparative study. In a group sequential trial the decision to stop or to continue is made at regular intervals throughout the trial, but not as frequently as after every patient(More)
For disease indications such as Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and various cancers, randomization to a pure control treatment may be scientifically desirable but not ethically acceptable. Clinicians may insist that the experimental treatment be made available, at least as a rescue medication, for all patients in the control arm. A method for(More)
This paper describes the Bayesian decision procedure and illustrates the methodology through an application to dose determination in early phase clinical trials. The situation considered is quite specific: a fixed number of patients are available, to be treated one at a time, with the choice of dose for any patient requiring knowledge of the responses of(More)
BACKGROUND TKM-130803, a small interfering RNA lipid nanoparticle product, has been developed for the treatment of Ebola virus disease (EVD), but its efficacy and safety in humans has not been evaluated. METHODS AND FINDINGS In this single-arm phase 2 trial, adults with laboratory-confirmed EVD received 0.3 mg/kg of TKM-130803 by intravenous infusion once(More)
In this paper the following problem of clinical research is explored. Several potential new treatments are available for use against a certain disease. These are evaluated in a series of pilot studies which will constitute phase II clinical trials. The most promising will then be compared with a standard treatment in a phase III trial. Of interest will be(More)
When sequential clinical trials are conducted by plotting a statistic measuring treatment difference against another measuring information, power is guaranteed regardless of nuisance parameters. However, values need to be assigned to nuisance parameters in order to gain an impression of the sample size distribution. Each interim analysis provides an(More)
This work is motivated by trials in rapidly lethal cancers or cancers for which measuring shrinkage of tumours is infeasible. In either case, traditional phase II designs focussing on tumour response are unsuitable. Usually, tumour response is considered as a substitute for the more relevant but longer-term endpoint of death. In rapidly lethal cancers such(More)