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High-throughput in vitro toxicity screening can provide an efficient way to identify potential biological targets for chemicals. However, relying on nominal assay concentrations may misrepresent potential in vivo effects of these chemicals due to differences in bioavailability, clearance, and exposure. Hepatic metabolic clearance and plasma protein binding(More)
The United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) must characterize potential risks to human health and the environment associated with manufacture and use of thousands of chemicals. High-throughput screening (HTS) for biological activity allows the ToxCast research program to prioritize chemical inventories for potential hazard. Similar(More)
Many chemicals in commerce today have undergone limited or no safety testing. To reduce the number of untested chemicals and prioritize limited testing resources, several governmental programs are using high-throughput in vitro screens for assessing chemical effects across multiple cellular pathways. In this study, metabolic clearance and plasma protein(More)
The risk posed to human health by any of the thousands of untested anthropogenic chemicals in our environment is a function of both the hazard presented by the chemical and the extent of exposure. However, many chemicals lack estimates of exposure intake, limiting the understanding of health risks. We aim to develop a rapid heuristic method to determine(More)
The use of high-throughput in vitro assays has been proposed to play a significant role in the future of toxicity testing. In this study, rat hepatic metabolic clearance and plasma protein binding were measured for 59 ToxCast phase I chemicals. Computational in vitro-to-in vivo extrapolation was used to estimate the daily dose in a rat, called the oral(More)
The liver plays a key role in removing harmful chemicals from the body and is therefore often the first tissue to suffer potentially adverse consequences. To protect public health it is necessary to quantitatively estimate the risk of long-term low dose exposure to environmental pollutants. Animal testing is the primary tool for extrapolating human risk but(More)
We study stochastic transport of fluxons in superconductors by alternating current (ac) rectification. Our simulated system provides a fluxon pump, " lens, " or fluxon " rectifier " because the applied electrical ac is transformed into a net dc motion of fluxons. Thermal fluctuations and the asymmetry of the ratchet channel walls induce this " diode "(More)
Perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) is a fluorinated organic chemical found at low levels in the environment, but is detectable in humans and wildlife. The present study compared the pharmacokinetic properties of PFNA in two laboratory rodent species. Male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were given a single dose of PFNA by oral gavage at 1, 3, or 10mg/kg, and(More)
New approaches are vital for efficiently evaluating human health risk of thousands of chemicals in commerce. In vitro models offer a high-throughput approach for assaying chemical-induced molecular and cellular changes; however, bridging these perturbations to in vivo effects across chemicals, dose, time, and species remains challenging. Technological(More)
A significant challenge in toxicology is the 'too many chemicals' problem. Human beings and environmental species are exposed to tens of thousands of chemicals, only a small percentage of which have been tested thoroughly using standard in vivo test methods. This study reviews several approaches that are being developed to deal with this problem by the U.S.(More)