John W Wellard

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Ependymal cells form a single-layered, ciliated epithelium at the interface between the cerebrospinal fluid and the brain parenchyma. Although their morphology has been studied in detail, ependymal functions remain largely speculative. We have established and characterized a previously described cell culture model to investigate ependymal glycogen(More)
Ependymal cells have been reported to express the facilitative glucose carriers GLUT1, GLUT2, and GLUT4, as well as glucokinase. They are therefore speculated to be part of the cerebral glucose sensing system and may also respond to insulin with alterations in their glucose uptake rate. A cell culture model was employed to study the functional status of(More)
The current study aims to assess the vulnerability of photoreceptors in rat retina to variations in tissue oxygen levels. Young adult Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to air with the concentration of oxygen set at 10% (hypoxia), 21% (room air, normoxia), and four levels of hyperoxia (45%, 65%, 70%, and 75%), for up to 3 weeks. Their retinas were then(More)
The functional state of the amacrine cells which contain enkephalin-, neurotensin- and somatostatin-like immunoreactivity of the chicken retina was monitored by measuring the rate of change in the levels of [Leu]enkephalin-like immunoreactivity in the retina. Dark-adapted birds were exposed to lights of different intensities for 12 h. At light levels of <(More)
We assessed the effect of the in vivo application of monocarboxylate transport inhibitors on retinal function and amino acid immunocytochemistry. We wanted to determine the impact that altered aerobic metabolite availability has on retinal function and the characteristics of amino acid shunting into metabolic pools. Electroretinograms were collected from(More)
The aim of this study was to determine whether agmatine, a channel permeable probe, can identify photoreceptor dysfunction in the Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) retina at an earlier stage to that shown by apoptosis or anatomical markers, and also characterize the neurochemical development of the inner retina in the normal and degenerating rat. We used(More)
Nitric oxide (NO) has been suggested to have many physiological functions in the vertebrate retina, including a role in light-adaptive processes. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of the NO-donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) on the activity of arylalkylamine-N-acetyltransferase (AA-NAT; EC., the activity of which responds to light(More)
Ependymal primary cultures are a model for studying ependymal energy metabolism. Intracellular glycogen is built up in the cultures dependent on culture age and the presence of glucose and glutamate. This energy store is mobilized upon glucose withdrawal, stimulation with isoproterenol, forskolin or serotonin and after uncoupling of oxidative(More)
Serotonin uptake and metabolism was studied in ependymal primary cultures. Serotonin uptake was facilitated by two different systems, one of which was the neuronal serotonin transporter SERT, exhibiting a Vmax value of 3.8+/-0.1 pmol x min(-1) x (mg protein)(-1) and an apparent Michaelis-Menten constant of 0.41+/-0.03 microM. The main product of metabolism(More)
Atrial natriuretic peptide-(1-28) (ANP), brain natriuretic peptide-(1-32) (BNP) and C-Type natriuretic polypeptide (CNP) occur in the brain, are concentrated in the anteroventral area of the third cerebral ventricle and participate in the regulation of body fluid homeostasis. The ventricles of the mammalian brain are lined by a continuous monolayered(More)