John W. Vance

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We evolved a nomogram for guiding and standardizing intravenous theophylline therapy in hospitalized patients. It provides rapid calculation of a loading dose based on body weight and previous therapy and a maintenance infusion rate related to three categories of expected metabolic activity. The guidelines were prospectively used in the treatment of 72(More)
A system was developed for guiding theophylline therapy in acutely ill patients with respiratory disease and for recovery of pharmacokinetic information. A dosage regimen nomogram was designed based on literature data and preliminary pharmacokinetic studies in patients. Using the nomogram, physicians select the loading and infusion dosages based on previous(More)
Cefmenoxime concentration/effect relationships were retrospectively explored for gram-negative bacteria isolated from 14 critical care patients treated for nosocomial pneumonia. The effects of cefmenoxime concentrations on in vitro growth kinetics of 21 isolated pathogens were studied using the Abbott MS-2 Research System, from which a dynamic response(More)
Gentamicin pharmacokinetics was examined in a group of 47 patients with stable renal function treated an average of 10 days for severe infection. Serum concentrations rose continually during treatment, and declined in two phases after the drug was stopped, with a mean half-life of 112hr (range 27–693 hr) in the second phase. A two-compartment model was used(More)
Carbon dioxide is stored in the body in various forms, including carbonic acid, bicarbonate and carbamino compounds. The various stores of CO2 can be considered to be in the lung, blood, soft tissues and bone. In an adult human, these stores are thought to be in the order of 120 liters of CO2.’ It is common knowledge that hyperventilation will reduce the(More)
A two-compartment pharmcokinetic model was used to caracterize serum concentrations and to predict tissue accumulation of gentamicin in 47 treated patients. Postmortem tissues were obtained in six cases; in each instance, tissues yielded the predicted amount of drug. Slow release of tissue-bound gentamicin accounts for its prolonged retention in the body.(More)
Dual individualization is the integration of patient-specific pharmacokinetic parameters with the pharmacodynamics (concentration versus response) of the infecting pathogen. This technique allows description of the time of in vivo bacterial eradication, and allows estimation of optimal dosages using small numbers of seriously ill patients. In an ongoing(More)