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The ancestors of fungi are believed to be simple aquatic forms with flagellated spores, similar to members of the extant phylum Chytridiomycota (chytrids). Current classifications assume that chytrids form an early-diverging clade within the kingdom Fungi and imply a single loss of the spore flagellum, leading to the diversification of terrestrial fungi.(More)
The operational species concept, i.e., the one used to recognize species, is contrasted to the theoretical species concept. A phylogenetic approach to recognize fungal species based on concordance of multiple gene genealogies is compared to those based on morphology and reproductive behavior. Examples where Phylogenetic Species Recognition has been applied(More)
To critically examine the relationship between species recognized by phylogenetic and reproductive compatibility criteria, we applied phylogenetic species recognition (PSR) to the fungus in which biological species recognition (BSR) has been most comprehensively applied, the well-studied genus Neurospora. Four independent anonymous nuclear loci were(More)
The collection of papers in this issue of Mycologia documents considerable improvements in taxon sampling and phylogenetic resolution regarding the Fungal Tree of Life. The new data will stimulate new attempts to date divergences and correlate events in fungal evolution with those of other organisms. Here, we review the history of dating fungal divergences(More)
While most Ascomycetes tend to associate principally with plants, the dimorphic fungi Coccidioides immitis and Coccidioides posadasii are primary pathogens of immunocompetent mammals, including humans. Infection results from environmental exposure to Coccidiodies, which is believed to grow as a soil saprophyte in arid deserts. To investigate hypotheses(More)
In the entire fungal kingdom, only DNA substitution rates in the SSU rRNA gene (Berbee and Taylor 1993, 2001) and amino acid substitution rates (Heckman et al. 2001) have been estimated and used to date fungal divergences. However, these molecules are not sufficiently variable to date events at or below the genus level. DNA sequences of protein-coding genes(More)
Fungal type I polyketides (PKs) are synthesized by PK synthases (PKSs) and include well known secondary metabolites such as the anticholesterol drug lovastatin and the potent natural carcinogen aflatoxin. Other type I PKs are known to be virulence factors for some plant pathogens and pigments such as melanin. In this study, a phylogenomic approach was used(More)
Barriers to dispersal between populations allow them to diverge through local adaptation or random genetic drift. High-resolution multilocus sequence analysis revealed that, on a global scale, populations of hyperthermophilic microorganisms are isolated from one another by geographic barriers and have diverged over the course of their recent evolutionary(More)
Coccidioides posadasii sp. nov., formerly known as non-California (non-CA) Coccidioides immitis, is described. Phylogenetic analyses using single nucleotide polymorphisms, genes, and microsatellites show that C. posadasii represents a divergent, genetically recombining monophyletic clade. Coccidioides posadasii can be distinguished from C. immitis by(More)
Simple cladogenetic theory suggests that gene genealogies can be used to detect mixis in a population and delineate reproductively isolated groups within sexual taxa. We have taken this approach in a study of Coccidioides immitis, an ascomycete fungus responsible for a recent epidemic of coccidioidomycosis (Valley fever) in California. To test whether this(More)