John W. Olney

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Programmed cell death (apoptosis) occurs during normal development of the central nervous system. However, the mechanisms that determine which neurons will succumb to apoptosis are poorly understood. Blockade of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptors for only a few hours during late fetal or early neonatal life triggered widespread apoptotic(More)
The deleterious effects of ethanol on the developing human brain are poorly understood. Here it is reported that ethanol, acting by a dual mechanism [blockade of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptors and excessive activation of GABA(A) receptors], triggers widespread apoptotic neurodegeneration in the developing rat forebrain. Vulnerability(More)
In this article, we advance a unified hypothesis pertaining to combined dysfunction of dopamine and N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate receptors that highlights N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor hypofunction as a key mechanism that can help explain major clinical and pathophysiological aspects of schizophrenia. The following fundamental features of schizophrenia(More)
Several decades of research attempting to explain schizophrenia in terms of the dopamine hyperactivity hypothesis have produced disappointing results. A new hypothesis focusing on hypofunction of the NMDA glutamate transmitter system is emerging as a potentially more promising concept. In this article, we present a version of the NMDA receptor hypofunction(More)
Recently it was demonstrated that exposure of the developing brain during the period of synaptogenesis to drugs that block NMDA glutamate receptors or drugs that potentiate GABA(A) receptors can trigger widespread apoptotic neurodegeneration. All currently used general anesthetic agents have either NMDA receptor-blocking or GABA(A) receptor-enhancing(More)
In newborn mice subcutaneous injectionis of monosodium glutamate induced acute neuronal necrosis in several regions of developing brain including the hypothanamus. As adults, treated animals showed stunted skeletal development, marked obesity, and female sterility. Pathological changes were also found in several organs associated with endocrine function.(More)
Phencyclidine (PCP), a dissociative anesthetic and widely abused psychotomimetic drug, and MK-801, a potent PCP receptor ligand, have neuroprotective properties stemming from their ability to antagonize the excitotoxic actions of endogenous excitatory amino acids such as glutamate and aspartate. There is growing interest in the potential application of(More)
The receptor mGluR5 is a metabotropic glutamate receptor with messenger RNA abundantly present throughout cortex, hippocampus, and caudate/putamen that is also coupled to phosphatidyl inositide hydrolysis and calcium mobilization. In this study, the distribution of mGluR5 was examined in rat brain by immunocytochemistry. The antibody utilized is highly(More)
N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptor antagonists are reported to induce schizophrenia-like symptoms in humans, including cognitive impairments. Shortcomings of most previous investigations include failure to maintain steady-state infusion conditions, test multiple doses and/or measure antagonist plasma concentrations. This double-blind,(More)
Information obtained over the past 25 years indicates that the amino acid glutamate functions as a fast excitatory transmitter in the mammalian brain. Studies completed during the last 15 years have also demonstrated that glutamate is a powerful neurotoxin, capable of killing neurons in the central nervous system when its extracellular concentration is(More)