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Previous studies suggested that tetrodotoxin, a poison from the puffer fish, blocks conduction of nerve and muscle through its rather selective inhibition of the sodium-carrying mechanism. In order to verify this hypothesis, observations have been made of sodium and potassium currents in the lobster giant axons treated with tetrodotoxin by means of the(More)
T he patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is a vascular structure that connects the proximal descending aorta to the roof of the main pulmonary artery near the origin of the left branch pulmonary artery. This essential fetal structure normally closes spontaneously after birth. After the first few weeks of life, persistence of ductal patency is abnormal. The(More)
As there are numerous pathogen species that cause disease and limit yields of crops, such as wheat (Triticum aestivum), single genes that provide resistance to multiple pathogens are valuable in crop improvement. The mechanistic basis of multi-pathogen resistance is largely unknown. Here we use comparative genomics, mutagenesis and transformation to isolate(More)
Two patients with complex cyanotic congenital heart disease and without previous Glenn anastomosis underwent modified Fontan operations. Postoperatively, pulmonary arteriovenous malformations developed that resulted in cyanosis from significant intrapulmonary right-to-left shunting. These malformations were detected by pulmonary angiograms and contrast(More)
Pleural effusions after the modified Fontan procedure are unpredictable, increase morbidity, and prolong hospital stay. To assess the relation between preoperative characteristics and postoperative pleural drainage, we performed a retrospective study of 71 patients who underwent Fontan procedures. Analyses revealed no significant relation between duration(More)
Amplatzer ductal occluders were used for percutaneous closure of perimembranous ventricular septal defects with associated ventricular septal aneurysm in three patients. The device was well positioned and the ventricular left-to-right shunt was significantly decreased in all three patients. The procedure was tolerated well without complications in each case.
The nictitating membrane response to periocular electrostimulation was investigated in anesthetized and paralyzed rabbits. Recordings from the abducens nerve, which carries the fibers innervating retractor bulbi muscles that are primarily involved in this reflex, showed two distinct volleys to effective stimulation: a short duration volley with a minimum(More)
Previous investigations have suggested that the cerebellum and associated brainstem structures, including the red nucleus, are essential for the expression of the classically conditioned nictitating membrane (NM) response. The present study examined the firing patterns of extracellularly-recorded single units in the red nucleus of the awake rabbit during(More)
A neuron-like adaptive element with computational features suitable for classical conditioning, the Sutton-Barto (S-B) model, was extended to simulate real-time aspects of the conditioned nictitating membrane (NM) response. The aspects of concern were response topography, CR-related neuronal firing, and interstimulus interval (ISI) effects for forward-delay(More)