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Little is known of the molecular mechanisms that trigger oligodendrocyte death and demyelination in many acute central nervous system insults. Since oligodendrocytes express functional alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA)/kainate-type glutamate receptors, we examined the possibility that oligodendrocyte death can be mediated by(More)
Transplantation approaches using cellular bridges, fetal central nervous system cells, fibroblasts expressing neurotrophin-3 (ref. 6), hybridoma cells expressing inhibitory protein-blocking antibodies, or olfactory nerves ensheathing glial cells transplanted into the acutely injured spinal cord have produced axonal regrowth or functional benefits.(More)
Cell death was examined by studying the spinal cords of rats subjected to traumatic insults of mild to moderate severity. Within minutes after mild weight drop impact (a 10 gm weight falling 6.25 mm), neurons in the immediate impact area showed a loss of cytoplasmic Nissl substances. Over the next 7 d, this lesion area expanded and cavitated. Terminal(More)
Demyelination contributes to the loss of function consequent to central nervous system (CNS) injury. Enhanced remyelination through transplantation of myelin-producing cells may offer a pragmatic approach to restoring meaningful neurological function. An unlimited source of cells suitable for such transplantation therapy can be derived from embryonic stem(More)
Since the discovery in the 1960s that remyelination can occur in the damaged central nervous system (CNS) (Bunge et al. 1961), there has been much progress in understanding the cellular and molecular biology of oligodendroglia and the factors that regulate their propagation, migration, differentiation, maturation, and ability to myelinate nerve axons. More(More)
The authors of this prospective, single-case study evaluated the potential for functional recovery from chronic spinal cord injury (SCI). The patient was motor complete with minimal and transient sensory perception in the left hemibody. His condition was classified as C-2 American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) Grade A and he had experienced no(More)
Severe hyperbilirubinemia in neonates with prematurity and/or systemic illnesses such as hemolytic disease, acidosis, and hypoxemia enhances their risk for developing cerebral palsy, paralysis of ocular upgaze, and deafness. This neurologic syndrome has been associated with selective neuronal vulnerability in the basal ganglia, certain brainstem nuclei, and(More)
Neurotrophins have been shown to promote axonal growth and regeneration after spinal cord injury. The therapeutic utility of neurotrophins may be enhanced by using a controlled delivery system to increase the duration of neurotrophin availability following injury. Such a delivery system can be incorporated into a bioactive scaffold to serve as a physical(More)
Damage to specific white matter tracts within the spinal cord can often result in the particular neurological syndromes that characterize myelopathies such as traumatic spinal cord injury. Noninvasive visualization of these tracts with imaging techniques that are sensitive to microstructural integrity is an important clinical goal. Diffusion tensor imaging(More)