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Zinc co-crystallizes with insulin in dense core secretory granules, but its role in insulin biosynthesis, storage and secretion is unknown. In this study we assessed the role of the zinc transporter ZnT8 using ZnT8-knockout (ZnT8(-/-)) mice. Absence of ZnT8 expression caused loss of zinc release upon stimulation of exocytosis, but normal rates of insulin(More)
Human obesity has an inherited component, but in contrast to rodent obesity, precise genetic defects have yet to be defined. A mutation of carboxypeptidase E (CPE), an enzyme active in the processing and sorting of prohormones, causes obesity in the fat/fat mouse. We have previously described a women with extreme childhood obesity (Fig. 1), abnormal glucose(More)
The proprotein convertases (PCs) are a seven-member family of endoproteases that activate proproteins by cleavage at basic motifs. Expression patterns for individual PCs vary widely, and all cells express several members. The list of substrates activated by PCs has grown to include neuropeptides, peptide hormones, growth and differentiation factors,(More)
Type 2 diabetes is a disorder of hyperglycemia resulting from failure of beta cells to produce adequate insulin to accommodate an increased metabolic demand. Here we show that regulation of mRNA translation through phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2alpha) is essential to preserve the integrity of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and to(More)
The human growth hormone (hGH) minigene is frequently used in the derivation of transgenic mouse lines to enhance transgene expression. Although this minigene is present in the transgenes as a secondcistron, and thus not thought to be expressed, we found that three commonly used lines, Pdx1-Cre(Late), RIP-Cre, and MIP-GFP, each expressed significant amounts(More)
The functional loss of both alleles of the human pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) gene leads to a very rare syndrome of hypoadrenalism, red hair and early-onset obesity. In order to examine whether more subtle genetic variants in POMC might contribute to early-onset obesity, the coding region of the gene was sequenced in 262 Caucasian subjects with a history of(More)
Different mutations in the BRI(2) gene cause rare neurodegenerative conditions, termed familial British dementia (FBD) and familial Danish dementia (FDD). The mutant genes encode BRI-L and BRI-D, the precursors of fibrillogenic ABri and ADan peptides, respectively. We previously reported that furin processes both BRI-L and its wild type counterpart, BRI,(More)
We have previously described the only reported case of human proprotein convertase 1 (PC1) deficiency, in a female (Subject A) with obesity, hypogonadism, hypoadrenalism, and reactive hypoglycemia. We now report the second case of human PC1 deficiency (Subject B), also due to compound heterozygosity for novel missense and nonsense mutations. While both(More)
The amyloid peptide is the main constituent of the amyloid plaques in brain of Alzheimer's disease patients. This peptide is generated from the amyloid precursor protein by two consecutive cleavages. Cleavage at the N terminus is performed by the recently discovered beta-secretase (Bace). This aspartyl protease contains a propeptide that has to be removed(More)
Glypican (GPC)-3 inhibits cell proliferation and regulates cell survival during development. This action is demonstrated by GPC3 loss-of-function mutations in humans and mice. Here, we show that the GPC3 core protein is processed by a furinlike convertase. This processing is essential for GPC3 modulating Wnt signaling and cell survival in vitro and for(More)