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A life course approach to chronic disease epidemiology uses a multidisciplinary framework to understand the importance of time and timing in associations between exposures and outcomes at the individual and population levels. Such an approach to chronic diseases is enriched by specification of the particular way that time and timing in relation to physical(More)
This glossary presents a comprehensive list of indicators of socioeconomic position used in health research. A description of what they intend to measure is given together with how data are elicited and the advantages and limitation of the indicators. The glossary is divided into two parts for journal publication but the intention is that it should be used(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine the relation between health outcomes and the equality with which income is distributed in the United States. DESIGN The degree of income inequality, defined as the percentage of total household income received by the less well off 50% of households, and changes in income inequality were calculated for the 50 states in 1980 and 1990.(More)
This article reviews 98 aggregate and multilevel studies examining the associations between income inequality and health. Overall, there seems to be little support for the idea that income inequality is a major, generalizable determinant of population health differences within or between rich countries. Income inequality may, however, directly influence(More)
Attempts to explain socioeconomic inequalities in health have often made reference to the observation that poor health behaviours and psychosocial characteristics cluster in low socioeconomic status (SES) groups. Causal interpretation of the association between SES, health behaviour, psychosocial orientations, and health inequalities has been hampered(More)
There is convincing evidence that exposures acting across the life course influence adult health outcomes (1–3). Lifecourse epidemiology examines a range of potential processes through which exposures acting at different stages of life can, singly or in combination, influence disease risk (table 1) (4). In the critical period model, an exposure acting at a(More)
BACKGROUND There have been no large-scale international comparisons on bullying and health among adolescents. This study examined the association between bullying and physical and psychological symptoms among adolescents in 28 countries. METHODS This international cross-sectional survey included 123,227 students 11, 13 and 15 years of age from a(More)
BACKGROUND Although the relation between low income and poor health is well established, most previous research has measured income at only one time. METHODS We used income information collected in 1965, 1974, and 1983 from a representative sample of adults in Alameda County, California, to examine the cumulative effect of economic hardship (defined as a(More)