John W. Krakauer

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The planning of visually guided reaches is accomplished by independent specification of extent and direction. We investigated whether this separation of extent and direction planning for well practiced movements could be explained by differences in the adaptation to extent and directional errors during motor learning. We compared the time course and(More)
Psychophysical studies of reaching movements suggest that hand kinematics are learned from errors in extent and direction in an extrinsic coordinate system, whereas dynamics are learned from proprioceptive errors in an intrinsic coordinate system. We examined consolidation and interference to determine if these two forms of learning were independent.(More)
Motor skills can take weeks to months to acquire and can diminish over time in the absence of continued practice. Thus, strategies that enhance skill acquisition or retention are of great scientific and practical interest. Here we investigated the effect of noninvasive cortical stimulation on the extended time course of learning a novel and challenging(More)
The paradigm task A-->task B-->task A, which varies the time interval between task A and task B, has been used extensively to investigate the consolidation of motor memory. Consolidation is defined as resistance to retrograde interference (interference by task B on initial learning of task A). Consolidation has been demonstrated for simple skills, motor(More)
Motor control is the study of how organisms make accurate goal-directed movements. Here we consider two problems that the motor system must solve in order to achieve such control. The first problem is that sensory feedback is noisy and delayed, which can make movements inaccurate and unstable. The second problem is that the relationship between a motor(More)
The study of patients to infer normal brain function has a long tradition in neurology and psychology. More recently, the motor system has been subject to quantitative and computational characterization. The purpose of this review is to argue that the lesion approach and theoretical motor control can mutually inform each other. Specifically, one may(More)
The cerebellum is an essential part of the neural network involved in adapting goal-directed arm movements. This adaptation might rely on two distinct signals: a sensory prediction error or a motor correction. Sensory prediction errors occur when an initial motor command is generated but the predicted sensory consequences do not match the observed values.(More)
The relationship between implicit and explicit processes during motor learning, and for visuomotor adaptation in particular, is poorly understood. We set up a conflict between implicit and explicit processes by instructing subjects to counter a visuomotor rotation using a cognitive strategy in a pointing task. Specifically, they were told the exact nature(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Recovery from hemiparesis due to corticospinal tract infarction is well documented, but the mechanism of recovery is unknown. Functional MRI (fMRI) provides a means of identifying focal brain activity related to movement of a paretic hand. Although prior studies have suggested that supplementary motor regions in the ipsilesional and(More)
Although motor learning is likely to involve multiple processes, phenomena observed in error-based motor learning paradigms tend to be conceptualized in terms of only a single process: adaptation, which occurs through updating an internal model. Here we argue that fundamental phenomena like movement direction biases, savings (faster relearning), and(More)