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Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a rare disorder with familial and acquired forms. The familial form is associated with mutations in the perforin gene and both forms are associated with severe defects in lymphocyte cytotoxic function. We examined perforin-deficient mice as a model of HLH in order to gain insight into this poorly understood(More)
During the productive interaction of T cells with antigen-presenting cells (APCs), engaged receptors, including the T cell antigen receptors and their associated tyrosine kinases, assemble into spatially segregated supramolecular activation clusters (SMACs) at the area of cell contact. Here, we studied intracellular signaling in SMACs by three-dimensional(More)
The rules for the conserved reaction of alphabeta T cell receptors (TCRs) with major histocompatibility complex (MHC) proteins plus peptides are poorly understood, probably because thymocytes bearing TCRs with the strongest MHC reactivity are lost by negative selection. Thus, only TCRs with an attenuated ability to react with MHC appear on mature T cells.(More)
To understand more about how the body recognizes alum we characterized the early innate and adaptive responses in mice injected with the adjuvant. Within hours of exposure, alum induces a type 2 innate response characterized by an influx of eosinophils, monocytes, neutrophils, DCs, NK cells and NKT cells. In addition, at least 13 cytokines and chemokines(More)
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediate apoptosis in many different cell types. We have previously shown that the antioxidant Mn(III) tetrakis(5,10,15,20-benzoic acid)porphyrin (MnTBAP) decreased intracellular ROS and prevented the apoptosis of activated T cells in vitro. To determine the mechanism(s) by which MnTBAP afforded such protection, we used(More)
At the end of the T cell response, the majority of the activated T cells die. We activated Vbeta8(+) T cells with staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) in vivo and monitored the expansion and deletion of Vbeta8(+) T cells. We found that, in response to SEB, activated T cells died in vivo in the absence of Fas or TNF-R signaling but not when they overexpressed(More)
T cells bearing alphabeta T cell receptors (TCRs) recognize antigens in the form of peptides bound to class I or class II major histocompatibility proteins (MHC). TCRs on mature T cells are usually very specific for both peptide and MHC class and allele. They are picked out from a precursor population in the thymus by MHC-driven positive and negative(More)
After antigen-driven expansion, the majority of T cells involved in an immune response die rapidly by apoptosis dependent on the Bcl-2 related proteins, Bim and Bax or Bak. The details of how these proteins are activated and interact are still unclear. The crystal structure of mouse Bcl-x(L) bound to a long helical fragment of Bim indicates that the(More)
To test whether highly crossreactive alphabeta T cell receptors (TCRs) produced during limited negative selection best illustrate evolutionarily conserved interactions between TCR and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules, we solved the structures of three TCRs bound to the same MHC II peptide (IAb-3K). The TCRs had similar affinities for IAb-3K(More)
Antigen injection into animals causes antigen-specific T cells to become activated and, rapidly thereafter, die. This antigen-induced death is inhibited by inflammation. To find out how inflammation has this effect, various cytokines were tested for their ability to interfere with the rapid death of activated T cells. T cells were activated in vivo,(More)