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Two of the forearm flexors of the horse, the superficial and deep digital flexor muscles, are critical to support the digital and fetlock joints, exhibit differing insertions, and are passively supported by the proximal and distal check ligaments, respectively. These two muscles differ in histochemical composition and architecture. The differences are(More)
The biceps brachii of horses is a complex muscle subdivided into two heads which may subserve distinct functions. The lateral head contains a large percentage of type I myofibers. This region is largely composed of short fibers (5-7 mm long) arranged in a pinnate fashion and heavily invested with connective tissue. The medial head contains fewer type I(More)
Bats (Chiroptera) are generally awkward crawlers, but the common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus) and the New Zealand short-tailed bat (Mystacina tuberculata) have independently evolved the ability to manoeuvre well on the ground. In this study we describe the kinematics of locomotion in both species, and the kinetics of locomotion in M. tuberculata. We(More)
The extensor carpi radialis muscle of the horse is deceptive at first appearance. It has a fusiform shape similar to other forearm extensor muscles. The fiber arrangement also appears long and relatively parallel. However, it may contain two or more compartments that correlate with differing functional roles. Histochemical and immunocytochemical analysis of(More)
In the evolution of flight bats appear to have suffered a trade-off; they have become poor crawlers relative to terrestrial mammals. Capable walking does occur in a few disparate taxa, including the vampire bats, but the vast majority of bats are able only to shuffle awkwardly along the ground, and the morphological bases of differences in crawling ability(More)
Most tetrapods have retained terrestrial locomotion since it evolved in the Palaeozoic era, but bats have become so specialized for flight that they have almost lost the ability to manoeuvre on land at all. Vampire bats, which sneak up on their prey along the ground, are an important exception. Here we show that common vampire bats can also run by using a(More)
The forelimb digital flexors of the horse display remarkable diversity in muscle architecture despite each muscle-tendon unit having a similar mechanical advantage across the fetlock joint. We focus on two distinct muscles of the digital flexor system: short compartment deep digital flexor (DDF(sc)) and the superficial digital flexor (SDF). The objectives(More)
The morphology of the chiropteran forelimb demonstrates musculoskeletal specializations for powered flight essentially unique among mammals, including extreme elongation of the distal skeletal elements. Recent studies have focused primarily on the relative timing and levels of gene expression during early stages of endochondral ossification in the(More)
The soleus muscle of horses is rather diminutive with respect to the overall size of adjacent synergist muscles in the hind limb of the horse. Whether or not such a muscle might be vestigial or may be providing some essential function has not been determined. We have studied the horse's soleus muscle using histochemical (ATPase), immunocytochemical (myosin(More)
Desmodus rotundus, the common vampire bat (Phyllostomidae: Desmodontinae), exhibits complex and variable terrestrial movements that include flight-initiating vertical jumps. This ability is unique among bats and is related to their unusual feeding behavior. As a consequence of this behavior, the wing is expected to have design features that allow both(More)