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Proteasomes, the primary mediators of ubiquitin-protein conjugate degradation, are regulated through complex and poorly understood mechanisms. Here we show that USP14, a proteasome-associated deubiquitinating enzyme, can inhibit the degradation of ubiquitin-protein conjugates both in vitro and in cells. A catalytically inactive variant of USP14 has reduced(More)
The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) controls protein abundance and is essential for many aspects of neuronal function. In ataxia (ax(J)) mice, profound neurological and synaptic defects result from a loss-of-function mutation in the proteasome-associated deubiquitinating enzyme Usp14, which is required for recycling ubiquitin from proteasomal substrates.(More)
Ubiquitin chains serve as a recognition motif for the proteasome, a multisubunit protease, which degrades its substrates into polypeptides while releasing ubiquitin for reuse. Yeast proteasomes contain two deubiquitinating enzymes, Ubp6 and Rpn11. Rpn11 promotes protein breakdown through its degradation-coupled activity. In contrast, we show here that Ubp6(More)
The ubiquitin ligase Hul5 was recently identified as a component of the proteasome, a multisubunit protease that degrades ubiquitin-protein conjugates. We report here a proteasome-dependent conjugating activity of Hul5 that endows proteasomes with the capacity to extend ubiquitin chains. hul5 mutants show reduced degradation of multiple proteasome(More)
Ubiquitin-dependent protein degradation is essential for cells to survive many environmental stresses. Thus, it may be necessary to buffer ubiquitin and proteasome pools against fluctuation. Proteasome levels are tightly regulated, and proteasome deficiency stimulates a stress response. Here we report a novel pathway of cellular response to ubiquitin(More)
Primary vertebral tumors, although less common than metastases to the spine, make up a heterogeneous group of neoplasms that can pose diagnostic and treatment challenges. They affect both the adult and the pediatric population and may be benign, locally aggressive, or malignant. An understanding of typical imaging findings will aid in accurate diagnosis and(More)
This second part of a comprehensive review of primary vertebral tumors focuses on locally aggressive and malignant tumors. As discussed in the earlier part of the review, both benign and malignant types of these tumors affect the adult and the pediatric population, and an understanding of their subtleties may increase their effective resection. In this(More)
BACKGROUND AND AIMS Few studies evaluate the impact of anesthesia providers during procedures, such as colonoscopy, on low-risk patients. The objective of this study was to compare the effect of anesthesia providers on several outcome variables, including major morbidity, following screening colonoscopies. METHODS A propensity-matched cohort study of(More)
In September 2007, a collaborative effort was made to survey Armillaria species in three general areas of south-central Mexico. Collected Armillaria isolates will be subjected to DNA analyses to examine genetic relationships with other Armillaria species. These studies will provide baseline information for examining evolution of Armillaria spp., assessing(More)
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