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Proteasomes, the primary mediators of ubiquitin-protein conjugate degradation, are regulated through complex and poorly understood mechanisms. Here we show that USP14, a proteasome-associated deubiquitinating enzyme, can inhibit the degradation of ubiquitin-protein conjugates both in vitro and in cells. A catalytically inactive variant of USP14 has reduced(More)
We have identified proteins that are abundant in affinity-purified proteasomes, but absent from proteasomes as previously defined because elevated salt concentrations dissociate them during purification. The major components are a deubiquitinating enzyme (Ubp6), a ubiquitin-ligase (Hul5), and an uncharacterized protein (Ecm29). Ecm29 tethers the proteasome(More)
Protein ubiquitination regulates many cellular processes, including protein degradation, signal transduction, DNA repair and cell division. In the classical model, a uniform polyubiquitin chain that is linked through Lys 48 is required for recognition and degradation by the 26S proteasome. Here, we used a reconstituted system and quantitative mass(More)
How long-term memories are stored is a fundamental question in neuroscience. The first molecular mechanism for long-term memory storage in the brain was recently identified as the persistent action of protein kinase Mzeta (PKMzeta), an autonomously active atypical protein kinase C (PKC) isoform critical for the maintenance of long-term potentiation (LTP).(More)
Ubiquitin chains serve as a recognition motif for the proteasome, a multisubunit protease, which degrades its substrates into polypeptides while releasing ubiquitin for reuse. Yeast proteasomes contain two deubiquitinating enzymes, Ubp6 and Rpn11. Rpn11 promotes protein breakdown through its degradation-coupled activity. In contrast, we show here that Ubp6(More)
The selective recognition of ubiquitin conjugates by proteasomes is a key step in protein degradation. The receptors that mediate this step have yet to be clearly defined although specific candidates exist. Here we show that the proteasome directly recognizes ubiquitin chains through a specific subunit, Rpn10, and also recognizes chains indirectly through(More)
The proteasome generally recognizes substrate via its multiubiquitin chain followed by ATP-dependent unfolding and translocation of the substrate from the regulatory particle into the proteolytic core particle to be degraded. Substrate-bound ubiquitin groups are for the most part not delivered to the core particle and broken down together with substrate but(More)
The proteasome is a compartmentalized, ATP-dependent protease composed of more than 30 subunits that recognizes and degrades polyubiquitinated substrates. Despite its physiological importance, many aspects of the proteasome's structural organization and regulation remain poorly understood. In addition to the proteins that form the proteasome holocomplex,(More)
Phylogenetic and genetic relationships among 10 North American Armillaria species were analysed using sequence data from ribosomal DNA (rDNA), including intergenic spacer (IGS-1), internal transcribed spacers with associated 5.8S (ITS + 5.8S), and nuclear large subunit rDNA (nLSU), and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. Based on rDNA(More)
Ubiquitin-dependent protein degradation is essential for cells to survive many environmental stresses. Thus, it may be necessary to buffer ubiquitin and proteasome pools against fluctuation. Proteasome levels are tightly regulated, and proteasome deficiency stimulates a stress response. Here we report a novel pathway of cellular response to ubiquitin(More)