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(Vr, every 5 m s-1); (c) model-output vertical velocity (w, every 0.5 m s-1); and (d) vertical relative vorticity (z, every 0.5 x 10-3 s-1). Solid (dashed) lines are for positive (negative) values. Figure 16. As in Fig. 9 but for the streamlines (solid) and isotachs (dashed, every 10 m s-1) at (a) 200 hPa; (b) 400 hPa; (c) 850 hPa; and (d) 950 hPa. The(More)
Infrared extinction optical depth (500-5000 cm(-1)) has been measured with a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer for clouds produced with an ultrasonic nebulizer. Direct measurement of the cloud droplet size spectra agree with size spectra retrieved from inversion of the extinction measurements. Both indicate that the range of droplet sizes is 1-14 mum.(More)
Extinction measurements with a laser diode (0.685 µm) and a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (2-18 µm) were performed on laboratory ice clouds (5 µm ≤ D ≤ 70 µm) grown at a variety of temperatures, and thus at a variety of crystal habits and average projected crystal area. Ice clouds were grown by nucleation of a supercooled water droplet cloud with(More)
Retrieval of size distributions from multispectral optical depth measurements requires solution of an illposed inverse problem. The illposedness causes problems such as solution ambiguity. Size distribution retrieval becomes more complicated in the presence of nonspherical particles and/or refractive index errors. A new retrieval algorithm is first(More)
Recent laboratory experiments and in situ observations have produced results in broad agreement with respect to ice crystal habits in the atmosphere. These studies reveal that the ice crystal habit at 2208C is platelike, extending to 2408C, and not columnar as indicated in many habit diagrams found in atmospheric science journals and texts. These diagrams(More)
SUMMARY An armada of infrared 1-2 and other remote sensing equipment have been developed and deployed to characterize clouds from the ground, from airplanes, and from satellites. Perhaps someday we will be able to trust this equipment to provide all the information we need about clouds-we no longer will have to fly through them and directly record particle(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate duplex ultrasonographic criteria for the determination of 50% or more and 70% or more stenosis of the diameter of the internal carotid artery based on conventional angiography in order to align ultrasonographic diagnostic categories with current clinical management schemes. PATIENTS AND METHODS Between January 1, 1995, and June 30,(More)
PURPOSE Graft-related complications must be factored into the long-term morbidity and mortality rates of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair. However, the true incidence may be underestimated because some patients do not return to the original surgical center when a problem arises. METHODS To minimize referral bias and loss to follow-up, we studied all(More)
OBJECTIVE Rupture of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) remains lethal. In a report of patients treated in the 1980s, we recommended aggressive management. Our continued experience prompted us to reevaluate this policy. METHODS We reviewed clinical variables affecting outcome, morbidity, mortality, and trends in mortality of all patients managed at our(More)
The records of 231 patients (189 men, 42 women) treated during the last decade for ruptured infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm were reviewed to evaluate complications and mortality rates and to determine if preoperative factors would preclude attempt at surgical repair. Mean age was 73.7 years (range, 50 to 95 years). Fifty-seven patients (24.7%) were(More)