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(Vr, every 5 m s-1); (c) model-output vertical velocity (w, every 0.5 m s-1); and (d) vertical relative vorticity (z, every 0.5 x 10-3 s-1). Solid (dashed) lines are for positive (negative) values. Figure 16. As in Fig. 9 but for the streamlines (solid) and isotachs (dashed, every 10 m s-1) at (a) 200 hPa; (b) 400 hPa; (c) 850 hPa; and (d) 950 hPa. The(More)
Infrared extinction optical depth (500-5000 cm(-1)) has been measured with a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer for clouds produced with an ultrasonic nebulizer. Direct measurement of the cloud droplet size spectra agree with size spectra retrieved from inversion of the extinction measurements. Both indicate that the range of droplet sizes is 1-14 mum.(More)
The operative records of 2816 patients undergoing repair for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) from 1955 to 1985 were reviewed. Inflammatory aortic or iliac aneurysms were present in 127 patients (4.5%), 123 men and four women. Most patients were heavy smokers (92.1%). Clinical evidence of peripheral arterial occlusive disease and coronary artery disease was(More)
Extinction measurements with a laser diode (0.685 µm) and a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (2-18 µm) were performed on laboratory ice clouds (5 µm ≤ D ≤ 70 µm) grown at a variety of temperatures, and thus at a variety of crystal habits and average projected crystal area. Ice clouds were grown by nucleation of a supercooled water droplet cloud with(More)
Retrieval of size distributions from multispectral optical depth measurements requires solution of an illposed inverse problem. The illposedness causes problems such as solution ambiguity. Size distribution retrieval becomes more complicated in the presence of nonspherical particles and/or refractive index errors. A new retrieval algorithm is first(More)
Recent laboratory experiments and in situ observations have produced results in broad agreement with respect to ice crystal habits in the atmosphere. These studies reveal that the ice crystal habit at 2208C is platelike, extending to 2408C, and not columnar as indicated in many habit diagrams found in atmospheric science journals and texts. These diagrams(More)
SUMMARY An armada of infrared 1-2 and other remote sensing equipment have been developed and deployed to characterize clouds from the ground, from airplanes, and from satellites. Perhaps someday we will be able to trust this equipment to provide all the information we need about clouds-we no longer will have to fly through them and directly record particle(More)
Information is incomplete about the rate of expansion of abdominal aortic aneurysms and the risk of rupture in relation to their size. To address these questions, we conducted a population-based study. Of the 370 residents of Rochester, Minn., with an aneurysm initially diagnosed from 1951 through 1984, 181 had the aneurysm documented by ultrasound(More)
PURPOSE Graft-related complications must be factored into the long-term morbidity and mortality rates of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair. However, the true incidence may be underestimated because some patients do not return to the original surgical center when a problem arises. METHODS To minimize referral bias and loss to follow-up, we studied all(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate duplex ultrasonographic criteria for the determination of 50% or more and 70% or more stenosis of the diameter of the internal carotid artery based on conventional angiography in order to align ultrasonographic diagnostic categories with current clinical management schemes. PATIENTS AND METHODS Between January 1, 1995, and June 30,(More)