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Effects of spaceflight on Rhesus quadrupedal locomotion after return to 1G. Locomotor performance, activation patterns of the soleus (Sol), medial gastrocnemius (MG), vastus lateralis (VL), and tibialis anterior (TA) and MG tendon force during quadrupedal stepping were studied in adult Rhesus before and after 14 days of either spaceflight (n = 2) or flight(More)
CD4+ T lymphocyte depletion in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected humans underlies the development of acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Using a model in which rhesus macaques were infected with chimeric simian-human immunodeficiency viruses (SHIVs), we show that both the level of viremia and the structure of the HIV-1 envelope(More)
Continuous intramuscular electromyograms (EMGs) were recorded from the soleus (Sol), medial gastrocnemius (MG), tibialis anterior (TA), and vastus lateralis (VL) muscles of Rhesus during normal cage activity throughout 24-h periods and also during treadmill locomotion. Daily levels of MG tendon force and EMG activity were obtained from five monkeys with(More)
A simian homologue of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), the eighth human herpesvirus (HHV8), was isolated from a simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) that developed a multicentric lymphoproliferative disorder (LPD). This simian rhadinovirus is genetically similar to a recently described rhesus(More)
Open muscle biopsies were obtained from Rhesus soleus (slow ankle extensor), medial gastrocnemius (fast ankle extensor) and tibialis anterior (fast ankle flexor) muscles before and after either a 14-day spaceflight (BION 11, n=2) or ground-based flight simulation (n=3) and in time-matched controls (n=5). Fiber type distribution (immunohistochemistry),(More)
We measured hemodynamic responses during 4 days of head-down tilt (HDT) and during graded lower body negative pressure (LBNP) in invasively instrumented rhesus monkeys to test the hypotheses that exposure to simulated microgravity increases cardiac compliance and that decreased stroke volume, cardiac output, and orthostatic tolerance are associated with(More)
Diazepam is known to decrease organophosphate nerve agent-induced convulsions, neuropathology, and lethality in rhesus monkeys. We report that, when added to the previously fielded treatment regimen (pyridostigmine, atropine, and pralidoxime chloride), diazepam significantly protects the performance of rhesus monkeys trained in an equilibrium task, the(More)
This study had two purposes. First, the use of Transonic flowprobes placed on the common carotid and internal carotid arteries of seven male baboons was evaluated for measuring cerebral blood flow (BF) during +Gz stress. The approach was to compare BF's obtained with these flowprobes to microsphere measurements of total cerebral BF. The second purpose was(More)