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In most signaling schemes in digital communication, the boundaries of the decision regions are straight lines. For some of these schemes such as quadrature amplitude modulation and its special cases where the boundaries meet at right angles, simple and exact expressions are known for the probability of error on an AWGN channel. In other cases where the(More)
In smooth muscle, active Ca(2+) uptake into regions of sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) which are closely apposed to the sarcolemma has been proposed to substantially limit the increase in the cytoplasmic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](c)) following Ca(2+) influx, i.e. the 'superficial buffer barrier hypothesis'. The present study has re-examined this proposal.(More)
Many cellular functions are regulated by agonist-induced InsP(3)-evoked Ca2+ release from the internal store. In non-excitable cells, predominantly, the initial Ca2+ release from the store by InsP(3) is followed by a more sustained elevation in [Ca2+](i) via store-operated Ca2+ channels as a consequence of depletion of the store. Here, in smooth muscle, we(More)
Family involvement is a key to realize the potential for long-lasting positive effects on physical, cognitive and psychosocial development of all babies, including those in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Family-centered developmental care (FCDC) recognizes the family as vital members of the NICU health-care team. As such, families are integrated(More)
Parents will interact with a multitude of teams from various disciplines during their child's admission to the neonatal intensive care unit. Recognition of the emotional stressors experienced by these parents is a first step in working to provide the crucial support and parenting skills needed for bonding and caring for their infant from admission through(More)
This paper describes a paradigm shift occurring in neonatal intensive care. Care teams are moving from a focus limited to healing the baby's medical problems towards a focus that also requires effective partnerships with families. These partnerships encourage extensive participation of mothers and fathers in their baby's care and ongoing bi-directional(More)