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It is widely believed that perinatal cardiomyocyte terminal differentiation blocks cytokinesis, thereby causing binucleation and limiting regenerative repair after injury. This suggests that heart growth should occur entirely by cardiomyocyte hypertrophy during preadolescence when, in mice, cardiac mass increases many-fold over a few weeks. Here, we show(More)
The occurrence of hypoxia-ischemia (HI) during early fetal or neonatal stages of an individual leads to the damaging of immature neurons resulting in behavioral and psychological dysfunctions, such as motor or learning disabilities, cerebral palsy, epilepsy or even death. No effective treatment is currently available and this study is the first to use(More)
Apoptosis is the term given to programmed cell death, which has been widely connected to a number of intracranial pathologies including stroke, Alzheimer's disease, and more recently subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Subarachnoid hemorrhage is a disease, without any form of effective treatment, that affects mainly the young and middle aged and as a result is(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Erythropoietin (EPO), a hematopoietic growth factor, has been shown to be neuroprotective when administered as either a pretreatment or posttreatment. This study tested the hypothesis that one of the mechanisms of protection afforded by posttreatment with recombinant human EPO (rh-EPO) is an anti-inflammatory effect via inhibition of(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Cell death, especially apoptosis, occurred in brain tissues after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). We examined the relationships between apoptosis and the disruption of blood-brain barrier (BBB), brain edema, and mortality in an established endovascular perforation model in male Sprague-Dawley rats. METHODS A pan-caspase inhibitor(More)
Exercise training has been shown to reduce many risk factors related to cardiovascular disease, including high blood pressure, high cholesterol, obesity, and insulin resistance. More importantly, exercise training has been consistently shown to confer sustainable protection against myocardial infarction in animal models and has been associated with improved(More)
Exercise promotes cardioprotection in both humans and animals not only by reducing risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease but by reducing myocardial infarction and improving survival following ischemia. This article will define the role that nitric oxide and β-adrenergic receptors play in mediating the cardioprotective effects of exercise in(More)
BACKGROUND Coronary artery disease remains the principal cause of death in patients with diabetes mellitus. Diabetic mice display exacerbated injury following myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (MI/R) and are resistant to most therapeutic interventions. We have reported that sodium sulfide (Na2S) therapy confers cardioprotection during MI/R in non-diabetic(More)
Nitrite (NO(2)(-)) is an intrinsic signaling molecule that is reduced to NO during ischemia and limits apoptosis and cytotoxicity at reperfusion in the mammalian heart, liver, and brain. Although the mechanism of nitrite-mediated cytoprotection is unknown, NO is a mediator of the ischemic preconditioning cell-survival program. Analogous to the temporally(More)
RATIONALE The recent emergence of hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) as a potent cardioprotective signaling molecule necessitates the elucidation of its cytoprotective mechanisms. OBJECTIVE The present study evaluated potential mechanisms of H(2)S-mediated cardioprotection using an in vivo model of pharmacological preconditioning. METHODS AND RESULTS H(2)S (100(More)