John W Calvert

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Apoptosis is the term given to programmed cell death, which has been widely connected to a number of intracranial pathologies including stroke, Alzheimer's disease, and more recently subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Subarachnoid hemorrhage is a disease, without any form of effective treatment, that affects mainly the young and middle aged and as a result is(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Cell death, especially apoptosis, occurred in brain tissues after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). We examined the relationships between apoptosis and the disruption of blood-brain barrier (BBB), brain edema, and mortality in an established endovascular perforation model in male Sprague-Dawley rats. METHODS A pan-caspase inhibitor(More)
The recent discovery that hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) is an endogenously produced gaseous second messenger capable of modulating many physiological processes, much like nitric oxide, prompted us to investigate the potential of H(2)S as a cardioprotective agent. In the current study, we demonstrate that the delivery of H(2)S at the time of reperfusion limits(More)
RATIONALE The recent emergence of hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) as a potent cardioprotective signaling molecule necessitates the elucidation of its cytoprotective mechanisms. OBJECTIVE The present study evaluated potential mechanisms of H(2)S-mediated cardioprotection using an in vivo model of pharmacological preconditioning. METHODS AND RESULTS H(2)S (100(More)
RATIONALE Exercise training confers sustainable protection against ischemia-reperfusion injury in animal models and has been associated with improved survival following a heart attack in humans. It is still unclear how exercise protects the heart, but it is apparent that endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and nitric oxide (NO) play a role. OBJECTIVE(More)
Clinical studies have reported that the widely used antihyperglycemic drug metformin significantly reduces cardiac risk factors and improves clinical outcomes in patients with heart failure. The mechanisms by which metformin exerts these cardioprotective effects remain unclear and may be independent of antihyperglycemic effects. We tested the hypothesis(More)
OBJECTIVE Clinical studies have reported that metformin reduces cardiovascular end points of type 2 diabetic subjects by actions that cannot solely be attributed to glucose-lowering effects. The therapeutic effects of metformin have been reported to be mediated by its activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a metabolite sensing protein kinase(More)
It is widely believed that perinatal cardiomyocyte terminal differentiation blocks cytokinesis, thereby causing binucleation and limiting regenerative repair after injury. This suggests that heart growth should occur entirely by cardiomyocyte hypertrophy during preadolescence when, in mice, cardiac mass increases many-fold over a few weeks. Here, we show(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Erythropoietin (EPO), a hematopoietic growth factor, has been shown to be neuroprotective when administered as either a pretreatment or posttreatment. This study tested the hypothesis that one of the mechanisms of protection afforded by posttreatment with recombinant human EPO (rh-EPO) is an anti-inflammatory effect via inhibition of(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Despite intensive research efforts, the etiology of vasospasm (sustained constriction of the cerebral vessels) remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the role of p53-induced apoptosis in the vasculature at 24 and 72 hours. To completely examine the apoptotic cascades, key proteins of the caspase-dependent, -independent and(More)