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Various noninformative prior distributions have been suggested for scale parameters in hierarchical models. We construct a new folded-noncentral-t family of conditionally conjugate priors for hierarchical standard deviation parameters, and then consider noninformative and weakly informative priors in this family. We use an example to illustrate serious(More)
Hierarchical linear and generalized linear models can be fit using Gibbs samplers and Metropolis algorithms; these models, however, often have many parameters, and convergence of the seemingly most natural Gibbs and Metropolis algorithms can sometimes be slow. We examine solutions that involve reparameterization and over-parameterization. We begin with(More)
OBJECTIVE Transsphenoidal adenomectomy carries the possibility of new pituitary failure and recovery. Herein, we present rates and determinants of postoperative hormonal status. METHODS All consecutive patients who underwent endonasal transsphenoidal adenoma removal over an 8-year period were analyzed. Those with previous sellar radiotherapy were(More)
The aim of the present study was to investigate the course of cerebral blood flow (CBF) and metabolism in traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients and to specifically characterize the changes in lactate and glucose indices in the acute post-traumatic period with regard to neurological condition and functional outcome. For this purpose, 55 consecutive TBI(More)
Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is the most common cause of dementia in people under 60 yr of age and is pathologically associated with mislocalization of TAR DNA/RNA binding protein 43 (TDP-43) in approximately half of cases (FLTD-TDP). Mutations in the gene encoding progranulin (GRN), which lead to reduced progranulin levels, are a significant cause of(More)
We propose a new method for statistical analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data. The discrete wavelet transformation is employed as a tool for efficient and robust signal representation. We use structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and fMRI to empirically estimate the distribution of the wavelet coefficients of the data both(More)
OBJECTIVES Successful control of the HIV/AIDS pandemic requires reduction of HIV-1 transmission at sexually-exposed mucosae. No prevention studies of the higher-risk rectal compartment exist. We report the first-in-field Phase 1 trial of a rectally-applied, vaginally-formulated microbicide gel with the RT-inhibitor UC781 measuring clinical and mucosal(More)
Immune changes and their relationships in a frail elderly population (N=116, age 70-103, median 86 years) were defined in comparison to a healthy younger group. Previous immune studies in the elderly have generally focused on one or few parameters without correlation analyses. Furthermore, the study populations have been active elderly in relatively small(More)
Evaluation of cytokine gene expression following in vitro stimulation is one means of examining the dysregulation of the immune system in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. We have assessed differences in the immune status of non-HIV-infected (HIV-) and HIV-infected (HIV+) individuals by evaluating the kinetics of the expression of cytokine(More)
In aging research, it is important to develop and validate accurate prognostic models whose predictive accuracy will not degrade when applied in external data sources. While the most common method of validation is split sample, alternative methods such as cross-validation and bootstrapping have some significant advantages. The macro that we present(More)