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The human malaria parasite Plasmodium vivax is responsible for 25-40% of the approximately 515 million annual cases of malaria worldwide. Although seldom fatal, the parasite elicits severe and incapacitating clinical symptoms and often causes relapses months after a primary infection has cleared. Despite its importance as a major human pathogen, P. vivax is(More)
We have identified strain-specific antigens with Camp and St. Lucia strains of P. falciparum of Mr approximately 285,000 and approximately 260,000, respectively. These strain-specific antigens were metabolically labeled with radioactive amino acids, indicating that they were of parasite origin rather than altered host components. These proteins had the(More)
The population structure of Plasmodium vivax remains elusive. The markers of choice for large-scale population genetic studies of eukaryotes, short tandem repeats known as microsatellites, have been recently reported to be less polymorphic in P. vivax. Here we investigate the microsatellite diversity and geographic structure in P. vivax, at both local and(More)
Plasmodium merozoites are covered with a palisade layer of proteins that are arranged as organized bundles or appear as protruding spikes by electron microscopy. Here we present a third Plasmodium vivax merozoite surface protein, PvMSP-3, which is associated with but not anchored in the merozoite membrane. Serum from a P. vivax immune squirrel monkey was(More)
The dynamics of multiple Plasmodium infections in asymptomatic children living under intense malaria transmission pressure provide evidence for a density-dependent regulation that transcends species as well as genotype. This regulation, in combination with species- and genotype-specific immune responses, results in nonindependent, sequential episodes of(More)
We present evidence that a parasite with characteristics of Plasmodium vivax is being transmitted among Duffy blood group-negative inhabitants of Kenya. Thirty-two of 4,901 Anopheles gambiae and An. funestus (0.65%) collected in Nyanza Province were ELISA positive for the P. vivax circumsporozoite protein VK 247. All positives were found late in the rainy(More)
The geographical origin of Plasmodium vivax, the most widespread human malaria parasite, is controversial. Although genetic closeness to Asian primate malarias has been confirmed by phylogenetic analyses, genetic similarities between P. vivax and Plasmodium simium, a New World primate malaria, suggest that humans may have acquired P. vivax from New World(More)
Allelic diversity at the Plasmodium vivax merozoite surface protein-3alpha (PvMsp-3alpha) locus was investigated using a combined polymerase chain reaction/restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR/RFLP) protocol. Symptomatic patient isolates from global geographic origins showed a high level of polymorphism at the nucleotide level. These samples were(More)
Shortly after Kenya introduced artemether-lumefantrine (AL) for first-line treatment of uncomplicated malaria, we conducted a pre-post cluster randomized controlled trial to assess the effect of providing malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) on recommended treatment (patients with malaria prescribed AL) and overtreatment (patients without malaria(More)
Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes (RBC) develop surface protrusions (knobs) which consist of electron-dense submembrane cups and the overlying RBC plasma membrane. Knobs mediate cytoadherence to endothelial cells. Falciparum variants exist that lack knobs. Using knobby (K+) and knobless (K-) variants of two strains of P. falciparum, we confirmed(More)