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The human malaria parasite Plasmodium vivax is responsible for 25-40% of the approximately 515 million annual cases of malaria worldwide. Although seldom fatal, the parasite elicits severe and incapacitating clinical symptoms and often causes relapses months after a primary infection has cleared. Despite its importance as a major human pathogen, P. vivax is(More)
We have identified strain-specific antigens with Camp and St. Lucia strains of P. falciparum of Mr approximately 285,000 and approximately 260,000, respectively. These strain-specific antigens were metabolically labeled with radioactive amino acids, indicating that they were of parasite origin rather than altered host components. These proteins had the(More)
The dynamics of multiple Plasmodium infections in asymptomatic children living under intense malaria transmission pressure provide evidence for a density-dependent regulation that transcends species as well as genotype. This regulation, in combination with species- and genotype-specific immune responses, results in nonindependent, sequential episodes of(More)
The population structure of Plasmodium vivax remains elusive. The markers of choice for large-scale population genetic studies of eukaryotes, short tandem repeats known as microsatellites, have been recently reported to be less polymorphic in P. vivax. Here we investigate the microsatellite diversity and geographic structure in P. vivax, at both local and(More)
Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes (RBC) develop surface protrusions (knobs) which consist of electron-dense submembrane cups and the overlying RBC plasma membrane. Knobs mediate cytoadherence to endothelial cells. Falciparum variants exist that lack knobs. Using knobby (K+) and knobless (K-) variants of two strains of P. falciparum, we confirmed(More)
Plasmodium merozoites are covered with a palisade layer of proteins that are arranged as organized bundles or appear as protruding spikes by electron microscopy. Here we present a third Plasmodium vivax merozoite surface protein, PvMSP-3, which is associated with but not anchored in the merozoite membrane. Serum from a P. vivax immune squirrel monkey was(More)
The replacement of conventional antimalarial drugs with high-cost, artemisinin-based alternatives has created a gap in the successful management of malaria. This gap reflects an increased need for accurate disease diagnosis that cannot be met by traditional microscopy techniques. The recent introduction of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) has the potential to(More)
Chimpanzees are the closest evolutionary cousins of humans, sharing >99% identity in most protein sequences. Plasmodium falciparum is the major worldwide cause of malaria mortality. Plasmodium reichenowi, a morphologically identical and genetically very similar parasite, infects chimpanzees but not humans. Conversely, experimental P. falciparum infection(More)
The Harvard community has made this article openly available. Please share how this access benefits you. Your story matters. In light of the recent controversies over the role of animal models for research into the development of new treatments for severe malaria, particularly cerebral disease , a group of scientists came together to discuss the relative(More)
Genes of malaria parasites and other unicellular organisms have larger exons with fewer and smaller introns than metaozoans. Such differences in gene structure are perceived to extend to simpler mechanisms for transcriptional control and mRNA processing. Instead, we discovered a surprisingly complex level of post-transcriptional mRNA processing in analysis(More)