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The human malaria parasite Plasmodium vivax is responsible for 25-40% of the approximately 515 million annual cases of malaria worldwide. Although seldom fatal, the parasite elicits severe and incapacitating clinical symptoms and often causes relapses months after a primary infection has cleared. Despite its importance as a major human pathogen, P. vivax is(More)
The dynamics of multiple Plasmodium infections in asymptomatic children living under intense malaria transmission pressure provide evidence for a density-dependent regulation that transcends species as well as genotype. This regulation, in combination with species- and genotype-specific immune responses, results in nonindependent, sequential episodes of(More)
Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes (RBC) develop surface protrusions (knobs) which consist of electron-dense submembrane cups and the overlying RBC plasma membrane. Knobs mediate cytoadherence to endothelial cells. Falciparum variants exist that lack knobs. Using knobby (K+) and knobless (K-) variants of two strains of P. falciparum, we confirmed(More)
The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene (ISSN 0002-9637) is a peer-reviewed journal published twelve times a year, in two volumes, by the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 60 Revere Drive, Suite 500, Northbrook, IL 60062. The journal is the leading international journal in tropical medicine. Content includes original(More)
The geographical origin of Plasmodium vivax, the most widespread human malaria parasite, is controversial. Although genetic closeness to Asian primate malarias has been confirmed by phylogenetic analyses, genetic similarities between P. vivax and Plasmodium simium, a New World primate malaria, suggest that humans may have acquired P. vivax from New World(More)
Plasmodium merozoites are covered with a palisade layer of proteins that are arranged as organized bundles or appear as protruding spikes by electron microscopy. Here we present a third Plasmodium vivax merozoite surface protein, PvMSP-3, which is associated with but not anchored in the merozoite membrane. Serum from a P. vivax immune squirrel monkey was(More)
The recent emergence of artemisinin resistance in the Greater Mekong Subregion poses a major threat to the global effort to control malaria. Tracking the spread and evolution of artemisinin-resistant parasites is critical in aiding efforts to contain the spread of resistance. A total of 417 patient samples from the year 2007, collected during malaria(More)
Plasmodium vivax merozoites primarily invade reticulocytes. The basis of this restricted host cell preference has been debated. Here we introduce two novel P. vivax proteins that comigrate on reducing SDS-polyacrylamide gels, colocalize at the apical pole of merozoites, and adhere specifically to reticulocytes. The genes encoding these proteins, P. vivax(More)
We sequenced and annotated the genomes of four P. vivax strains collected from disparate geographic locations, tripling the number of genome sequences available for this understudied parasite and providing the first genome-wide perspective of global variability in this species. We observe approximately twice as much SNP diversity among these isolates as we(More)
Invasion of erythrocytes by Plasmodium merozoites is an intricate process involving multiple receptor-ligand interactions. The glycophorins and an unknown trypsin sensitive factor are all erythrocyte receptors used during invasion by the major human pathogen Plasmodium falciparum. However, only one erythrocyte receptor, Glycophorin A, has a well-established(More)