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Many complex models that utilize continuous simulation (SWMM, HSPF, SLAMM, SIMPTM, etc.) require information pertaining to the accumulation rate of pollutants on the land surfaces. This is one of the most perplexing issues in stormwater modeling. A representation of the accumulation rates is usually obtained through trial and error during calibration, with(More)
Over the years, a number of different approaches have been used to represent hydrographs in urban areas for drainage design. Unit hydrographs are usually used to represent one inch of runoff and are scaled according to calculated total runoff amounts and the hydrograph shapes are based on different drainage area characteristics. An actual complex rain(More)
Stormwater media filters are used to treat a variety of pollutants at different source areas. These can range from being as simple rain gardens or biofilters containing soils or special media, to proprietary devices. Historically, sand filters and sand-peat filters were some of the earliest filters used for storm-water control. all include descriptions and(More)
There are a wide range of controls that have been used to reduce stormwater pollutant and flow discharges. These include, with a few examples: development practices (reducing the amount of pavement and roof areas; directing runoff from these areas to pervious areas instead of directly connecting them to the drainage system); public works practices (street(More)
There are many soil processes that affect stormwater bioretention facility performance. This paper stresses evapotranspiration (ET) and how it affects the water balance in these stormwater control practices. Other processes discussed in this paper include clogging from the capture of sediment on the bioretention facility, cation exchange capacity (CEC)(More)
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