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Self-regulation of brain activity in humans based on real-time feedback of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signal is emerging as a potentially powerful, new technique. Here, we assessed whether patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) are able to alter local brain activity to improve motor function. Five patients learned to increase activity in(More)
Age is the largest risk factor for the development and progression of Parkinson's disease (PD). Ageing affects many cellular processes that predispose to neurodegeneration, and age-related changes in cellular function predispose to the pathogenesis of PD. The accumulation of age-related somatic damage combined with a failure of compensatory mechanisms may(More)
BACKGROUND Parkinson's disease (PD) brings with it a range of stresses and challenges with which a patient must cope. The type of coping strategies employed can impact upon well-being, although findings from coping studies in PD remain inconsistent. The variety of coping scales used without validation in PD has been cited as a possible cause of this(More)
BACKGROUND Depression and anxiety are common in Parkinson's disease (PD) and although clinically important remain poorly understood and managed. To date, research has tended to treat depression and anxiety as distinct phenomena. There is growing evidence for heterogeneity in PD in the motor and cognitive domains, with implications for pathophysiology and(More)
The observation of a bilingual advantage in executive control tasks involving inhibition and management of response conflict suggests that being bilingual might contribute to increased cognitive reserve. In support of this, recent evidence indicates that bilinguals develop Alzheimer's disease (AD) later than monolinguals, and may retain an advantage in(More)
Executive functioning is frequently impaired among people with Parkinson's disease (PD). Little is known about awareness of executive functioning, in the sense of being able to accurately appraise functioning or performance, in people with PD, or about whether awareness is particularly affected in those who have impaired executive functioning. This study(More)
Impairment of executive function (EF) is commonly reported as a feature of PD. However, the exact pattern of executive impairment remains unclear. Also, there is an ongoing discussion surrounding the definition and conceptualization of EF, which might affect the clarity of research evidence on cognition in PD. The aim of this systematic review was to(More)
During reaching movements, sensory signals must be transformed into appropriate motor commands. Anatomical, electrophysiological, and neuropsychological evidence suggest that there is no single, supramodal map of space that is used to guide reaching. Instead, movements appear to be planned and controlled within multiple coordinate systems, each one attached(More)
OBJECTIVES Holding positive beliefs about illness and having an optimistic outlook have been associated with increased well-being across a range of health conditions. However, research has indicated that being very optimistic may not actually be beneficial, and holding a realistic attitude is more adaptive in some forms of chronic illness, for example,(More)