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The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development has completed the first phase of an international validation program for the rodent uterotrophic bioassay. This uterotrophic bioassay is intended to identify the in vivo activity of compounds that are suspected agonists or antagonists of estrogen. This information could, for example, be used to help(More)
Bisphenol A (BPA) is active in immature AP rat uterotrophic assays when evaluated using either the oral or the subcutaneous (sc) injection routes of exposure (three daily administrations of 400-800 mg/kg BPA). Premature vaginal opening was seen for 8 of 14 animals exposed to 600 and 800 mg/kg BPA by sc injection. Vaginal opening was not produced by BPA in(More)
While defining the no effect level for the 5 alpha-reductase inhibitor finasteride in the Hershberger assay, we encountered an inverted-U low-dose trophic effect on the prostate gland of the rat. Two attempts to confirm this observation were unsuccessful, and we concluded that the positive effect initially observed was associated with normal biologic(More)
The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development has completed phase 2 of an international validation program for the rodent uterotrophic bioassay. The purpose of the validation program was to demonstrate the performance of two versions of the uterotrophic bioassay, the immature female rat and the adult ovariectomized rat, in four standardized(More)
We studied nine presumed nongenotoxic rodent carcinogens, as defined by the U.S. National Toxicology Program (NTP), to determine their ability to induce acute or subacute biochemical and tissue changes that may act as useful predictors of nongenotoxic rodent carcinogenesis. The chemicals selected included six liver carcinogens (two of which are peroxisome(More)
We have evaluated whether mixtures of estrogens, present in the mix at doses that are individually inactive in the immature rat uterotrophic assay, can give a uterotrophic response. Seven chemicals were evaluated: nonylphenol, bisphenol A (BPA), methoxychlor, genistein (GEN), estradiol, diethylstilbestrol, and ethinyl estradiol. Dose responses in the(More)
The gravimetric uterotrophic assay is currently the most well-established, short-term rodent estrogenicity assay. Increasing attention is being paid to the extent to which use of morphometric or molecular changes in the uterus could act as surrogates for the gravimetric end point of the assay, thereby perhaps increasing the sensitivity of the assay. In this(More)
The present studies report the effects on neonatal rats of oral exposure to genistein during the period from birth to postnatal day (PND) 21 to generate data for use in assessing human risk following oral ingestion of genistein. Failure to demonstrate significant exposure of the newborn pups via the mothers milk led us to subcutaneously inject genistein(More)
Many commercial laboratory diets have detectable levels of isoflavones (e.g., phytoestrogens such as genistein [GN]) that have weak estrogenic activity both in vitro and in vivo. During validation studies of the uterotrophic bioassay, diet samples from 20 participating laboratories were collected and analyzed for three major phytoestrogens: GN, daidzein(More)