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Although numerous studies of hyporheic exchange and denitrification have been conducted in pristine, high-gradient streams, few studies of this type have been conducted in nutrient-rich, low-gradient streams. This is a particularly important subject given the interest in nitrogen (N) inputs to the Gulf of Mexico and other eutrophic aquatic systems. A(More)
its Office of Research and Development, funded and managed the development of this Guide. It has been subjected to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency peer and administrative review and has been approved for publication as an EPA document. Mention of trade names or commercial products does not constitute endorsement or recommendation for use. All research(More)
BACKGROUND Cisapride, a prokinetic agent and substrate for cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4, has been used to treat neonates and infants with feeding intolerance and apnea or bradycardia associated with gastroesophageal reflux. At age 1 month, CYP3A4 activity has been reported to be only 30% to 40% of adult activity. This known developmental delay in the(More)
Introduction This issue paper explains when and how to apply first-order attenuation rate constant calculations in monitored natural attenuation (MNA) studies. First-order attenuation rate constant calculations can be an important tool for evaluating natural attenuation processes at groundwater contamination sites. Specific applications identified in U.S.(More)
The exponential increase in the number of drugs used to treat infant and childhood illnesses necessitates an understanding of the ontogeny of drug biotransformation for the development of safe and effective therapies. Healthy infants received an oral dose (0.3 mg/kg) of dextromethorphan (DM) at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, and 12 months of age. DM and its major(More)
The plasma steady-state concentration of carbamazepine (CBZ) and its metabolite (carbamazepine-10,11-epoxide, CBZ-epoxide) was assessed in 43 children (2-15 yr) on CBZ (Tegretol) treatment. Twenty of the children received combined treatment with other anticonvulsant drugs simultaneously. The plasma concentrations were in the same range as had been found in(More)
The excretion of drugs in human breast milk is reviewed with regard to milk production, composition, feeding patterns and mechanisms of drug transfer into milk. Fundamental principles of breast milk excretion are used to construct a pharmacokinetic approach useful for the study of most drugs. An infant-modulated 3-compartment open model is proposed for drug(More)
The pharmacokinetics of chloramphenicol (CAP; administered intravenously as chloramphenicol succinate, CAPS) was studied in 26 acutely ill febrile children 3 to 58 months of age who either did (n = 18) or did not (n = 8) receive acetaminophen (APAP) for antipyresis. CAP pharmacokinetics were evaluated after the first dose and at steady state. CAP serum(More)
Cytochrome P4502D6 (CYP2D6) activity has been shown to be a determinant of both the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of tramadol in adults. This study evaluated the association between CYP2D6 activity, as determined by dextromethorphan (DM) urinary metabolite ratio, and tramadol biotransformation in 13 children (7-16 years). CYP2D6 genotype was(More)