John Turnbull

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Creatine monohydrate (CrM) supplementation appears to be relatively safe based on data from short-term and intermediate-term human studies and results from several therapeutic trials. The purpose of the current study was to characterize pathological changes after intermediate-term and long-term CrM supplementation in mice [healthy control and SOD1 (G93A)(More)
Intrinsic rhythmic electrical activity in the brain, such as the hippocampal theta rhythm, might serve important roles in normal cognition. Lesions to the medial septal nuclei, or to the fimbria/fornix, disrupt the hippocampal theta rhythm and lead to memory impairment. We have superimposed an artificial stimulating rhythm to the hippocampus of rats with(More)
BACKGROUND Methylene blue (MB) is a drug with a long history and good safety profile, and with recently-described features desirable in a treatment for ALS. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS We tested oral MB in inbred high-copy number SOD1 G93A mice, at 25 mg/kg/day beginning at 45 days of age. We measured disease onset, progression, and survival. There was(More)
This study investigated the effects of riluzole (Ril), creatine (Cr) and a combination of these treatments on the onset and progression of clinical signs and neuropathology in an animal model of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, the G93A transgenic mouse (n=13-17 per group). The onset of clinical signs was delayed (P<0.05) by about 12 days in all(More)
We have previously demonstrated that primary cilia on spinal motor neurons are reduced in G93A SOD1 (mSOD) mice, a mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling involves the primary cilium and Shh has been shown to be cytoprotective in models of other neurodegenerative diseases. Thus, the Shh signaling pathway may bear(More)
Many patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS; motor neuron disease) use natural or traditional therapies of unproven benefit. One such therapy is ginseng root. However, in some other disease models, ginseng has proven efficacious. Ginseng improves learning and memory in rats, and reduces neuronal death following transient cerebral ischemia. These(More)
The most frequent genetic causes of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) determined so far are mutations occurring in the gene for copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD). The mechanism may involve inappropriate formation of hyroxyl radicals, peroxynitrite or malfunctioning of the SOD protein. We hypothesized that undiscovered genetic causes of(More)
The primary cilium is a solitary organelle important in cellular signaling, that projects from the cell surface of most growth-arrested or post-mitotic cells including neurons in the central nervous system. We hypothesized that primary cilial dysfunction might play a role in the pathogenesis of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), and as a first step,(More)
  • John Turnbull
  • The Canadian journal of neurological sciences. Le…
  • 2014
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is proving intractable. Difficulties in pre-clinical studies contribute in small measure to this futility, but the chief reason for failure is an inadequate understanding of disease pathogenesis. Many acquired and inherited processes have been advanced as potential causes of ALS but, while they may predispose to disease,(More)