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The atmospheric heat transport on Earth from the Equator to the poles is largely carried out by the mid-latitude storms. However, there is no satisfactory theory to describe this fundamental feature of the Earth's climate. Previous studies have characterized the poleward heat transport as a diffusion by eddies of specified horizontal length and velocity… (More)

A numerical scheme applicable to arbitrarily structured C-grids is presented for the nonlinear shallow-water equations. By discretizing the vector invariant form of the momentum equation, the relationship between the nonlinear Coriolis force and the potential vorticity flux can be used to guarantee that mass, velocity and potential vorticity evolve in a… (More)

A C-grid staggering, in which the mass variable is stored at cell centers and the normal velocity component is stored at cell faces (or edges in two dimensions) is attractive for atmospheric modeling since it enables a relatively accurate representation of fast wave modes. However, the discretization of the Coriolis terms is non-trivial. For constant… (More)

The advection schemes used in numerical models of chemistry and transport at xed resolution must unavoidably cause the models to misrepresent the transport in some way. This can include failure to establish or preserve the functional relations between long-lived chemical tracers that are often observed in the atmosphere. We show that linear functional… (More)

The rationale for designing atmospheric numerical model dynamical cores with certain conservation properties is reviewed. The conceptual difficulties associated with the multiscale nature of realistic atmospheric flow, and its lack of time-reversibility, are highlighted. A distinction is made between robust invariants, which are conserved or nearly… (More)

Accurate simulation of atmospheric flow in weather and climate prediction models requires the discretization of the governing equations to have a number of desirable properties. Although these properties can be achieved relatively straightforwardly on a latitude-longitude grid, they are much more challenging on the various quasi-uniform spherical grids that… (More)

The advection of a tracer field in a fluid flow can create complex scalar structures and increase the effect of weak diffusion by orders of magnitude. One tool to quantify this is to measure the flux of scalar across contour lines of constant scalar. This gives a diffusion equation in area coordinates with an effective diffusion that depends on the… (More)