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The effects of preferred stimulation on the vocal stereotypy of 2 individuals were evaluated in two experiments. The results of Experiment 1 showed that (a) the vocal stereotypy of both participants persisted in the absence of social consequences, (b) 1 participant manipulated toys that did and did not produce auditory stimulation, but only sound-producing(More)
Cultured astrocytes deposit an extracellular matrix which has been shown by immunocytochemistry to react with antibodies to tenascin, laminin, and fibronectin. Neuronal-glial interaction down-regulates these components of the matrix, causing a reduction in extracellular matrix localized to areas of contact with axons. Axons used for these experiments were(More)
A common deficiency in the verbal repertoires of individuals with autism and related disorders is the absence of socially appropriate vocal mands. The vocal mand repertoires of these individuals may be lacking in several respects: (a) The individual might engage in no mands whatsoever, (b) the mand might be topographically dissimilar to an appropriate(More)
Acquisition of verbal behavior is a major goal of interventions for children with developmental disabilities. We evaluated the effectiveness of manipulation of an establishing operation for functional discriminated mands. Four individuals with developmental disabilities participated in a training procedure designed to teach two separate mands for two(More)
The effects of noncontingent matched stimulation (NMS) and response blocking on a boy's stereotypic behavior were evaluated using a multiple schedule that contained three 15-min components (preintervention, intervention, and postintervention). Results showed that stereotypy was always higher after response blocking than before response blocking and was(More)
In this paper, we review definitional issues related to stereotypy, behavioral interpretations of stereotypy, procedures for determining operant function(s) of stereotypy, and behavioral interventions for stereotypy. In general, a preponderance of the assessment literature suggests that most forms of stereotypy are maintained by automatic reinforcement.(More)
Previous research has shown that behavioral skills training to teach sexual abuse prevention skills to women with mental retardation results in skill acquisition but poor generalization. In this investigation we evaluated procedures for enhancing generalization following training. Five women with mental retardation received 10 behavioral skills training(More)
We evaluated 2 3-component multiple-schedule sequences-a response interruption and redirection (RIRD) treatment sequence and a no-interaction control sequence-using a multielement design. With this design, we were able to evaluate the immediate and subsequent effects of RIRD on 2 participants' vocal stereotypy. For both participants, RIRD produced an(More)
We used a three-component multiple-schedule with a brief reversal design to evaluate the effects of structurally unmatched and matched stimuli on immediate and subsequent vocal stereotypy that was displayed by three children with autism spectrum disorders. For 2 of the 3 participants, access to matched stimuli, unmatched stimuli, and music decreased(More)
An ABA'B design was used to evaluate the effects of choice on task engagement for 3 adults who had been diagnosed with traumatic brain injury. A yoked-control condition, in which tasks that were selected by each participant were assigned subsequently to that participant by a trainer, was implemented to help distinguish between the effects of task preference(More)