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Genetic susceptibility to colonic inflammation is poorly defined at the gene level. Although Genome Wide Association studies (GWAS) have identified loci in the human genome which confer susceptibility to Inflammatory Bowel Disease (Crohn’s and Ulcerative Colitis), it is not clear if precise loci exist which confer susceptibility to inflammation at specific(More)
BACKGROUND It is widely reported that hexose sugars slow gastric emptying (GE) via osmoreceptor stimulation but this remains uncertain. We evaluated the effects of a panel of hexoses of differing molecular structure, assessing the effects of osmolality, intra-individual reproducibility and the role of the CCK(1) receptor, in the regulation of GE by hexoses.(More)
BACKGROUND Enterochromaffin (EC) cells are dispersed throughout the gastrointestinal (GI) mucosa and are the main source of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in the gut. 5-HT has been implicated in the pathophysiology of several GI disorders, but the mechanisms regulating 5-HT production in the gut are unknown. AIM To investigate the role of CD4(+) T cells in(More)
BACKGROUND/AIM 5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) released from enterochromaffin cells influences intestinal homeostasis by altering gut physiology and is implicated in the pathophysiology of various gut disorders. The mechanisms regulating 5-HT production in the gut remain unclear. This study investigated the T helper (Th) 1/Th2-based immunoregulation of(More)
In cell line and animal models, sweet and bitter tastants induce secretion of signaling peptides (e.g., glucagon-like peptide-1 and cholecystokinin) and slow gastric emptying (GE). Whether human GE and appetite responses are regulated by the sweetness or bitterness per se of ingested food is, however, unknown. We aimed to determine whether intragastric(More)
Enteroendocrine cells have a critical role in regulation of appetite and energy balance. I-cells are a subtype of enteroendocrine cells localized in duodenum that release cholecystokinin in response to ingested fat and amino-acids. Despite their potentially pivotal role in nutrient sensing and feeding behaviour, native I-cells have previously been difficult(More)
OBJECTIVES Previous fMRI studies have demonstrated that glucose decreases the hypothalamic BOLD response in humans. However, the mechanisms underlying the CNS response to glucose have not been defined. We recently demonstrated that the slowing of gastric emptying by glucose is dependent on activation of the gut peptide cholecystokinin (CCK1) receptor. Using(More)
Gastrointestinal infection is often associated with hypophagia and weight loss; however, the precise mechanisms governing these responses remain poorly defined. Furthermore, the possibility that alterations in feeding during infection may be beneficial to the host requires further study. We used the nematode Trichinella spiralis, which transiently inhabits(More)
BACKGROUND Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DP4) is a serine protease that preferentially cleaves N-terminal dipeptides from polypeptides containing proline or alanine as the penultimate amino acid. DP4 inactivates glucagon like peptide-2 (GLP-2), a trophic peptide with cytoprotective and reparative properties in the injured gut; therefore DP4 potentially inhibits(More)
There is considerable interest in whether non-nutritive sweeteners are sensed in the gastrointestinal tract to modulate appetitive or absorptive responses to ingested carbohydrate. We determined the effect of a panel of non-nutritive sweeteners, aspartame, saccharin and acesulfame-K, delivered in doses that would be consumed in normal usage. Each was given(More)