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Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is remarkably effective for a range of neurological and psychiatric disorders that have failed pharmacological and cell transplant therapies. Clinical investigations are underway for a variety of other conditions. Yet, the therapeutic mechanisms of action are unknown. In addition, DBS research demonstrates the need to(More)
Epileptic cortex is characterized by paroxysmal electrical discharges. Analysis of these interictal discharges typically manifests as spike-wave complexes on electroencephalography, and plays a critical role in diagnosing and treating epilepsy. Despite their fundamental importance, little is known about the neurophysiological mechanisms generating these(More)
The pathophysiology of Parkinson disease (PD) is characterized by derangements in the discharge rates, bursting patterns, and oscillatory activity of basal ganglia (BG) neurons. In this study, subthalamic nucleus (STN) neuronal activity patterns in humans with PD were compared with that in the normal monkey during performance of similar volitional(More)
Despite remarkable advances, the relationship between abnormal neuronal activity and the clinical manifestations of Parkinson disease (PD) remains unclear. Numerous hypotheses have emerged to explain the relationship between neuronal activity and symptoms such as tremor, rigidity and akinesia. Among these are the antagonist balance hypothesis wherein(More)
Cognitive decline is a common symptom in multiple sclerosis patients, with profound effects on the quality of life. A nonhuman primate model of multiple sclerosis would be best suited to test the effects of demyelination on complex cognitive functions such as learning and reasoning. Cuprizone has been shown to reliably induce brain demyelination in mice. To(More)
BACKGROUND Primate studies demonstrate that high-frequency electrical stimulation (HFS) of the caudate can enhance learning. Importantly, in these studies, stimulation was applied following the execution of behavior and the effect persisted into subsequent trials, suggesting a change in plasticity rather than a momentary facilitation of behavior. (More)
Huntington's disease (HD) is an incurable neurodegenerative disease characterized by the triad of chorea, cognitive dysfunction and psychiatric disturbances. Since the discovery of the HD gene, the pathogenesis has been outlined, but to date a cure has not been found. Disease modifying therapies are needed desperately to improve function, alleviate(More)
The basal ganglia (BG) appear to play a prominent role in associative learning, the process of pairing external stimuli with rewarding responses. Accumulating evidence suggests that the contributions of various BG components may be described within a reinforcement learning model, in which a broad repertoire of possible responses to environmental stimuli are(More)
BACKGROUND As medical therapy for Tourette syndrome (TS) is ineffective in a small subset of patients, surgical interventions, including deep brain stimulation at various sites, have been developed in recent years. CASE DESCRIPTION We present the case of a 40-year-old woman with TS whose severe tics had caused unilateral blindness. Despite trials of more(More)
OBJECTIVE Hemorrhage is an infrequent but potentially devastating complication of deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery. We examined the factors associated with hemorrhage after DBS surgery and evaluated a modified microelectrode design that may improve the safety of this procedure. METHODS All microelectrode-guided DBS procedures performed at our(More)