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Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is remarkably effective for a range of neurological and psychiatric disorders that have failed pharmacological and cell transplant therapies. Clinical investigations are underway for a variety of other conditions. Yet, the therapeutic mechanisms of action are unknown. In addition, DBS research demonstrates the need to(More)
Epileptic cortex is characterized by paroxysmal electrical discharges. Analysis of these interictal discharges typically manifests as spike-wave complexes on electroencephalography, and plays a critical role in diagnosing and treating epilepsy. Despite their fundamental importance, little is known about the neurophysiological mechanisms generating these(More)
BACKGROUND Primate studies demonstrate that high-frequency electrical stimulation (HFS) of the caudate can enhance learning. Importantly, in these studies, stimulation was applied following the execution of behavior and the effect persisted into subsequent trials, suggesting a change in plasticity rather than a momentary facilitation of behavior. (More)
The dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) has previously been implicated in processes that influence action initiation. In humans however, there has been little direct evidence connecting dACC to the temporal onset of actions. We studied reactive behavior in patients undergoing therapeutic bilateral cingulotomy to determine the immediate effects of dACC(More)
The pathophysiology of Parkinson disease (PD) is characterized by derangements in the discharge rates, bursting patterns, and oscillatory activity of basal ganglia (BG) neurons. In this study, subthalamic nucleus (STN) neuronal activity patterns in humans with PD were compared with that in the normal monkey during performance of similar volitional(More)
BACKGROUND Robot-assisted stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG) may represent a simplified, precise, and safe alternative to the more traditional SEEG techniques. OBJECTIVE To report our clinical experience with robotic SEEG implantation and to define its utility in the management of patients with medically refractory epilepsy. METHODS The prospective(More)
Despite remarkable advances, the relationship between abnormal neuronal activity and the clinical manifestations of Parkinson disease (PD) remains unclear. Numerous hypotheses have emerged to explain the relationship between neuronal activity and symptoms such as tremor, rigidity and akinesia. Among these are the antagonist balance hypothesis wherein(More)
Linking values to actions and evaluating expectations relative to outcomes are both central to reinforcement learning and are thought to underlie financial decision-making. However, neurophysiology studies of these processes in humans remain limited. Here, we recorded the activity of single human nucleus accumbens neurons while subjects performed a gambling(More)
Cognitive decline is a common symptom in multiple sclerosis patients, with profound effects on the quality of life. A nonhuman primate model of multiple sclerosis would be best suited to test the effects of demyelination on complex cognitive functions such as learning and reasoning. Cuprizone has been shown to reliably induce brain demyelination in mice. To(More)