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An update of the Earth's global annual mean energy budget is given in the light of new observations and analyses. Changes over time and contributions from the land and ocean domains are also detailed. W eather and climate on Earth are determined by the amount and distribution of incoming radiation from the sun. For an equilibrium climate, OLR 1 necessarily(More)
An analysis and evaluation has been performed of global datasets on column-integrated water vapor (precipitable water). For years before 1996, the Ross and Elliott radiosonde dataset is used for validation of European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) reanalyses ERA-40. Only the Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) dataset from Remote(More)
The mean and annual cycle of energy flowing into the climate system and its storage, release, and transport in the atmosphere, ocean, and land surface are estimated with recent observations. An emphasis is placed on establishing internally consistent quantitative estimates with discussion and assessment of uncertainty. At the top of the atmosphere (TOA),(More)
There have been decades, such as 2000–2009, when the observed globally averaged surface-temperature time series shows little increase or even a slightly negative trend 1 (a hiatus period). However, the observed energy imbalance at the top-of-atmosphere for this recent decade indicates that a net energy flux into the climate system of about 1 W m −2 (refs(More)
Meridional structure and transports of energy in the atmosphere, ocean, and land are evaluated holisti-cally for the mean and annual cycle zonal averages over the ocean, land, and global domains, with discussion and assessment of uncertainty. At the top of the atmosphere (TOA), adjusted radiances from the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) and Clouds(More)
An observable constraint on climate sensitivity, based on variations in mid-tropospheric relative humidity (RH) and their impact on clouds, is proposed. We show that the tropics and subtropics are linked by teleconnections that induce seasonal RH variations that relate strongly to albedo (via clouds), and that this covariability is mimicked in a warming(More)
An analysis of the climatic feedbacks in the NCAR Community Climate Model, version 3 (CCM3) over the equatorial Pacific cold tongue is presented. Using interannual signals in the underlying SST, the radiative and dynamical feedbacks have been calculated using both observations and outputs from the NCAR CCM3. The results show that the positive feedback from(More)