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BACKGROUND Double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) is a eukaryotic initiation factor 2α kinase that inhibits mRNA translation under stress conditions. PKR also mediates inflammatory and apoptotic signaling independently of translational regulation. Congestive heart failure is associated with cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, inflammation, and apoptosis,(More)
Adhesion to type 1 collagen elicits different responses dependent on whether the collagen is in fibrillar (gel) or monomeric form (film). Hepatocytes adherent to collagen film spread and proliferate, whereas those adherent to collagen gel remain rounded and growth arrested. To explore the role of potential intracellular inhibitory signals responsible for(More)
AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK) plays an important role in regulating myocardial metabolism and protein synthesis. Activation of AMPK attenuates hypertrophy in cultured cardiac myocytes, but the role of AMPK in regulating the development of myocardial hypertrophy in response to chronic pressure overload is not known. To test the hypothesis that(More)
OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to identify the role of dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase-1 (DDAH1) in degrading the endogenous nitric oxide synthase inhibitors asymmetrical dimethylarginine (ADMA) and N(g)-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA). METHODS AND RESULTS We generated a global-DDAH1 gene-deficient (DDAH1(-/-)) mouse strain to examine(More)
There is evidence that extracellular adenosine can attenuate cardiac hypertrophy, but the mechanism by which this occurs is not clear. Here we investigated the role of adenosine receptors and adenosine metabolism in attenuation of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Phenylephrine (PE) caused hypertrophy of neonatal rat cardiomyocytes with increases of cell surface(More)
Congestive heart failure (CHF) is associated with an increase of leukocyte infiltration, proinflammatory cytokines, and fibrosis in the heart and lung. Regulatory T cells (Tregs, CD4(+)CD25(+)FoxP3(+)) suppress inflammatory responses in various clinical conditions. We postulated that expansion of Tregs attenuates CHF progression by reducing cardiac and lung(More)
BACKGROUND Phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibition has been shown to exert profound beneficial effects in the failing heart, suggesting a significant role for PDE5 in the development of congestive heart failure (CHF). The purpose of this study is to test the hypothesis that oxidative stress causes increased PDE5 expression in cardiac myocytes and that(More)
Mitochondria are a principal site for generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the heart. Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha (PGC-1 alpha) plays an important role in regulating mitochondrial biogenesis and myocardial metabolism, but whether PGC-1 alpha can simultaneously upregulate myocardial mitochondrial(More)
AIMS Mindin is a secreted extracellular matrix protein, an integrin ligand, and an angiogenesis inhibitor, other examples of which are all key players in the progression of cardiac hypertrophy. However, its function during cardiac hypertrophy remains unclear. This study was aimed to identify the effect of mindin on cardiac hypertrophy and the underlying(More)
This study examined whether endogenous extracellular adenosine acts to facilitate the adaptive response of the heart to chronic systolic overload. To examine whether endogenous extracellular adenosine can protect the heart against pressure-overload-induced heart failure, transverse aortic constriction was performed on mice deficient in extracellular(More)