John T. Cunningham

Learn More
Disturbances in mineral and bone metabolism are prevalent in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and are an important cause of morbidity, decreased quality of life, and extraskeletal calcification that have been associated with increased cardiovascular mortality. These disturbances have traditionally been termed renal osteodystrophy and classified based on bone(More)
Transcriptional complexes that contain peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor coactivator (PGC)-1alpha control mitochondrial oxidative function to maintain energy homeostasis in response to nutrient and hormonal signals. An important component in the energy and nutrient pathways is mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), a kinase that regulates cell(More)
BACKGROUND Treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism with vitamin D and calcium in patients receiving dialysis is often complicated by hypercalcemia and hyperphosphatemia, which may contribute to cardiovascular disease and adverse clinical outcomes. Calcimimetics target the calcium-sensing receptor and lower parathyroid hormone levels without increasing(More)
BACKGROUND The National Kidney Foundation's Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (NKF-K/DOQItrade mark) has established guidelines for treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism (HPT). The ability of cinacalcet HCl (Sensipartrade mark) treatment to improve achievement of target levels of parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcium, phosphorus, and(More)
Secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) is a challenge frequently encountered in the management of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Downregulation of the parathyroid vitamin D and calcium-sensing receptors represent critical steps that lead to abnormalities in mineral metabolism: high phosphate, low calcium, and vitamin D deficiency. These(More)
BACKGROUND Secondary hyperparathyroidism (HPT) and abnormal mineral metabolism are thought to play an important role in bone and cardiovascular disease in patients with chronic kidney disease. Cinacalcet, a calcimimetic that modulates the calcium-sensing receptor, reduces parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion and lowers serum calcium and phosphorus(More)
BACKGROUND The utility and safety of endoscopic biliary orifice balloon dilation (EBD) for bile duct stone removal (with use of large-diameter balloons) after biliary endoscopic sphincterotomy (BES) is currently not well established. OBJECTIVE Our purpose was to evaluate the efficacy and complications of BES followed by > or = 12 mm diameter EBD for bile(More)
BACKGROUND Biliary stricture is one of the most common complications of liver transplantation. A number of treatment options are available, but a standard approach has not been established. METHODS A total of 25 patients with post-liver transplantation anastomotic strictures were treated endoscopically by stent placement. Long-term outcomes (bile duct(More)
The nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) receives inputs from both arterial chemoreceptors and central noradrenergic neural structures activated during hypoxia. We investigated norepinephrine (NE) modulation of chemoreceptor afferent integration after a chronic exposure to sustained hypoxia (CSH) (7-8 d at 10% FIO(2)). Whole-cell recordings of NTS(More)
We studied c-Fos staining in adult male rats after 48 h of water deprivation and after 46 h of water deprivation with 2 h of access to water or physiological saline. Controls were allowed ad libitum access to water and physiological saline. For immunocytochemistry, anesthetized rats were perfused with a commercially available antibody for c-Fos. Dehydration(More)