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The innate immune response plays a crucial role in satisfactory host resolution of bacterial infection. In response to chemotactic signals, neutrophils are early responding cells that migrate in large numbers to sites of infection. The recent discovery of secreted neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) composed of DNA and histones opened a novel dimension in(More)
Golden color imparted by carotenoid pigments is the eponymous feature of the human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus. Here we demonstrate a role of this hallmark phenotype in virulence. Compared with the wild-type (WT) bacterium, a S. aureus mutant with disrupted carotenoid biosynthesis is more susceptible to oxidant killing, has impaired neutrophil survival,(More)
Streptococcus iniae represents a major health and economic problem in fish species worldwide. Random Tn917 mutagenesis and high-throughput screening in a hybrid striped bass (HSB) model of meningoencephalitis identified attenuated S. iniae mutants. The Tn917 insertion in one mutant disrupted an S. iniae homologue of a phosphoglucomutase (pgm) gene. Electron(More)
Interleukin-8 (IL-8) promotes neutrophil-mediated host defense through its chemoattractant and immunostimulatory activities. The Group A Streptococcus (GAS) protease SpyCEP (also called ScpC) cleaves IL-8, and SpyCEP expression is strongly upregulated in vivo in the M1T1 GAS strains associated with life-threatening systemic disease including necrotizing(More)
Most invasive bacterial infections are caused by species that more commonly colonize the human host with minimal symptoms. Although phenotypic or genetic correlates underlying a bacterium's shift to enhanced virulence have been studied, the in vivo selection pressures governing such shifts are poorly understood. The globally disseminated M1T1 clone of group(More)
Surface capsular polysaccharides play a critical role in protecting several pathogenic microbes against innate host defenses during infection. Little is known about virulence mechanisms of the fish pathogen Streptococcus iniae, though indirect evidence suggests that capsule could represent an important factor. The putative S. iniae capsule operon contains a(More)
The aquatic zoonotic pathogen Streptococcus iniae represents a threat to the worldwide aquaculture industry and poses a risk to humans who handle raw fish. Because little is known about the mechanisms of S. iniae pathogenesis or virulence factors, we established a high-throughput system combining whole-genome pyrosequencing and transposon mutagenesis that(More)
Streptococcus iniae is a major fish pathogen producing invasive infections that result in economic losses in aquaculture. Development of in vitro models of S. iniae virulence may provide insight to the pathogenesis of infection in vivo. Three S. iniae strains (K288, 94-426, and 29178) were tested for virulence in a hybrid-striped bass (HSB) model using(More)
Conditions were developed to cryopreserve cells from pronase-dissociated atria and ventricles of eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica). The effect of three concentrations (5, 10, 15%) of the cryoprotectants (dimethyl sulfoxide, glycerol, and propylene glycol), three thawing temperatures (25, 45, 75°C), and three cooling rates (slow, medium, fast) were(More)
There is a need for research in disease resistance and microbial elimination in the eastern oyster Crassosostrea virginica. Gene transfer may lead to advances in this area, and a means of selecting transfected larvae would be useful. We transfected 3-hour-postfertilization embryos with the bacterial gene aminoglycoside phosphotransferase II (neo r ), which(More)