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The innate immune response plays a crucial role in satisfactory host resolution of bacterial infection. In response to chemotactic signals, neutrophils are early responding cells that migrate in large numbers to sites of infection. The recent discovery of secreted neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) composed of DNA and histones opened a novel dimension in(More)
Streptococcus iniae represents a major health and economic problem in fish species worldwide. Random Tn917 mutagenesis and high-throughput screening in a hybrid striped bass (HSB) model of meningoencephalitis identified attenuated S. iniae mutants. The Tn917 insertion in one mutant disrupted an S. iniae homologue of a phosphoglucomutase (pgm) gene. Electron(More)
Golden color imparted by carotenoid pigments is the eponymous feature of the human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus. Here we demonstrate a role of this hallmark phenotype in virulence. Compared with the wild-type (WT) bacterium, a S. aureus mutant with disrupted carotenoid biosynthesis is more susceptible to oxidant killing, has impaired neutrophil survival,(More)
Interleukin-8 (IL-8) promotes neutrophil-mediated host defense through its chemoattractant and immunostimulatory activities. The Group A Streptococcus (GAS) protease SpyCEP (also called ScpC) cleaves IL-8, and SpyCEP expression is strongly upregulated in vivo in the M1T1 GAS strains associated with life-threatening systemic disease including necrotizing(More)
Surface capsular polysaccharides play a critical role in protecting several pathogenic microbes against innate host defenses during infection. Little is known about virulence mechanisms of the fish pathogen Streptococcus iniae, though indirect evidence suggests that capsule could represent an important factor. The putative S. iniae capsule operon contains a(More)
Most invasive bacterial infections are caused by species that more commonly colonize the human host with minimal symptoms. Although phenotypic or genetic correlates underlying a bacterium's shift to enhanced virulence have been studied, the in vivo selection pressures governing such shifts are poorly understood. The globally disseminated M1T1 clone of group(More)
Classical Operations Research assumed objectivity. Operations researchers hardly bothered to ask the decision maker about his or her preferences, assuming that a well-defined single objective function was an adequate representation of the decision problem. Many multi-criteria decision methods began in response to this failure of Operations Research. Other(More)
BACKGROUND Streptococcus iniae is a significant pathogen in finfish aquaculture, though knowledge of virulence determinants is lacking. Through pyrosequencing of the S. iniae genome we have identified two gene homologues to classical surface-anchored streptococcal virulence factors: M-like protein (simA) and C5a peptidase (scpI). METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL(More)
This paper develops a conceptualization of decision problem structuring which synthesises a number of models and approaches cited in the decision making literature in general and the multi-criteria literature in particular. The approach advocates a dynamic interaction between criteria and alternatives as a decision maker understands his preferences and(More)