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The innate immune response plays a crucial role in satisfactory host resolution of bacterial infection. In response to chemotactic signals, neutrophils are early responding cells that migrate in large numbers to sites of infection. The recent discovery of secreted neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) composed of DNA and histones opened a novel dimension in(More)
Golden color imparted by carotenoid pigments is the eponymous feature of the human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus. Here we demonstrate a role of this hallmark phenotype in virulence. Compared with the wild-type (WT) bacterium, a S. aureus mutant with disrupted carotenoid biosynthesis is more susceptible to oxidant killing, has impaired neutrophil survival,(More)
Streptococcus iniae represents a major health and economic problem in fish species worldwide. Random Tn917 mutagenesis and high-throughput screening in a hybrid striped bass (HSB) model of meningoencephalitis identified attenuated S. iniae mutants. The Tn917 insertion in one mutant disrupted an S. iniae homologue of a phosphoglucomutase (pgm) gene. Electron(More)
The species composition and metabolic potential of microbial and viral communities are predictable and stable for most ecosystems. This apparent stability contradicts theoretical models as well as the viral-microbial dynamics observed in simple ecosystems, both of which show Kill-the-Winner behavior causing cycling of the dominant taxa. Microbial and viral(More)
Interleukin-8 (IL-8) promotes neutrophil-mediated host defense through its chemoattractant and immunostimulatory activities. The Group A Streptococcus (GAS) protease SpyCEP (also called ScpC) cleaves IL-8, and SpyCEP expression is strongly upregulated in vivo in the M1T1 GAS strains associated with life-threatening systemic disease including necrotizing(More)
The aquatic zoonotic pathogen Streptococcus iniae represents a threat to the worldwide aquaculture industry and poses a risk to humans who handle raw fish. Because little is known about the mechanisms of S. iniae pathogenesis or virulence factors, we established a high-throughput system combining whole-genome pyrosequencing and transposon mutagenesis that(More)
Streptococcus iniae is a major fish pathogen producing invasive infections that result in economic losses in aquaculture. Development of in vitro models of S. iniae virulence may provide insight to the pathogenesis of infection in vivo. Three S. iniae strains (K288, 94-426, and 29178) were tested for virulence in a hybrid-striped bass (HSB) model using(More)
Surface capsular polysaccharides play a critical role in protecting several pathogenic microbes against innate host defenses during infection. Little is known about virulence mechanisms of the fish pathogen Streptococcus iniae, though indirect evidence suggests that capsule could represent an important factor. The putative S. iniae capsule operon contains a(More)
The genus Morone is an important one for U.S. aquaculture, but there has been no available cell line from this genus. We report here a cell line (the WBE line) derived from white bass embryos that has been grown for more than 80 passages over 21 mo in Dulbecco modified Eagle medium supplemented with fetal bovine serum. The WBE line showed epithelial(More)
Clinical specimens collected during an outbreak of mumps were characterised by RT-PCR, nested PCR, and nucleotide sequencing. Mumps virus was positively identified in 12/21(57%) saliva, 9/21(43%), throat and 1/33(3%) urine specimens and further sequence comparison revealed that at least six strains of viruses, which differed from 0-9.43% at the nucleotide(More)