John T. Brooks

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BACKGROUND Preexposure prophylaxis with antiretroviral agents has been shown to reduce the transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among men who have sex with men; however, the efficacy among heterosexuals is uncertain. METHODS We randomly assigned HIV-seronegative men and women to receive either tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and emtricitabine(More)
This report updates and combines earlier versions of guidelines for the prevention and treatment of opportunistic infections (OIs) in HIV-infected adults (i.e., persons aged >/=18 years) and adolescents (i.e., persons aged 13--17 years), last published in 2002 and 2004, respectively. It has been prepared by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention(More)
BACKGROUND AIDS-related death and disease rates have declined in the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) era and remain low; however, current causes of death in HAART-treated patients remain ill defined. OBJECTIVE To describe mortality trends and causes of death among HIV-infected patients in the HAART era. DESIGN Prospective, multicenter,(More)
BACKGROUND Persons who are HIV-infected may be at higher risk for certain types of cancer than the general population. OBJECTIVE To compare cancer incidence among HIV-infected persons with incidence in the general population from 1992 to 2003. DESIGN Prospective observational cohort studies. SETTING United States. PATIENTS 54,780 HIV-infected(More)
BACKGROUND Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157:H7 is a well-recognized cause of bloody diarrhea and hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS). Non-O157 STEC contribute to this burden of illness but have been underrecognized as a result of diagnostic limitations and inadequate surveillance. METHODS Between 1983 and 2002, 43 state public health(More)
BACKGROUND The optimal time for the initiation of antiretroviral therapy for asymptomatic patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is uncertain. METHODS We conducted two parallel analyses involving a total of 17,517 asymptomatic patients with HIV infection in the United States and Canada who received medical care during the period from(More)
BACKGROUND we explored serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) levels and associated factors for insufficiency or deficiency in an adult human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) cohort and compared 25(OH)D levels with those in the general US population. METHODS using baseline data from the Study to Understand the Natural History of HIV and AIDS in the Era of(More)
BACKGROUND We evaluated clinical toxicity in HIV-infected persons receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Uganda. METHODS From May 2003 through December 2004, adults with a CD4 cell count < or =250 cells/microL or World Health Organization stage 3/4 HIV disease were prescribed ART. We calculated probabilities for time to toxicity and single-drug(More)
BACKGROUND. Initiatives to improve early detection and access to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) services have increased over time. We assessed the immune status of patients at initial presentation for HIV care from 1997 to 2007 in 13 US and Canadian clinical cohorts. METHODS. We analyzed data from 44,491 HIV-infected patients enrolled in the North(More)
BACKGROUND Diarrhea is a major cause of preventable illness in sub-Saharan Africa. Although most cases of bacterial gastroenteritis do not require antimicrobial treatment, antimicrobial use is widespread. We examined the bacterial causes of diarrhea and monitored antimicrobial susceptibilities of isolates through clinic-based surveillance in a rural Kenyan(More)