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The generation of cell-mediated immunity against many infectious pathogens involves the production of interleukin-12 (IL-12), a key signal of the innate immune system. Yet, for many pathogens, the molecules that induce IL-12 production by macrophages and the mechanisms by which they do so remain undefined. Here it is shown that microbial lipoproteins are(More)
Live Mycobacterium tuberculosis persists in macrophage phagosomes by interfering with phagolysosome biogenesis. Here, using four-dimensional microscopy and in vitro assays, we report the principal difference between phagosomes containing live and dead mycobacteria. Phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PI3P), a membrane trafficking regulatory lipid essential(More)
The antimycobacterial compound ethambutol [Emb; dextro-2,2'-(ethylenediimino)-di-1-butanol] is used to treat tuberculosis as well as disseminated infections caused by Mycobacterium avium. The critical target for Emb lies in the pathway for the biosynthesis of cell wall arabinogalactan, but the molecular mechanisms for drug action and resistance are unknown.(More)
The biosynthesis of lipoarabinomannan (LAM), a key mycobacterial lipoglycan that has been implicated in numerous immunoregulatory functions, was examined utilizing D-mannosamine (ManN) as a tool to identify mannosyltransferase genes involved in LAM synthesis. Cell-free reactions utilizing cellular membranes of mycobacteria as the enzyme source indicated(More)
Francisella tularensis is an obligate, intracellular bacterium that causes acute, lethal disease following inhalation. As an intracellular pathogen F. tularensis must invade cells, replicate, and disseminate while evading host immune responses. The mechanisms by which virulent type A strains of Francisella tularensis accomplish this evasion are not(More)
Nitric oxide (NO*) expression by inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is an important host defense mechanism against Mycobacterium tuberculosis in mononuclear phagocytes. The objective of this investigation was to examine the role of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase (MAPK) and nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) signaling pathways in the regulation of(More)
Langerhans cells (LCs) constitute a subset of DCs that initiate immune responses in skin. Using leprosy as a model, we investigated whether expression of CD1a and langerin, an LC-specific C-type lectin, imparts a specific functional role to LCs. LC-like DCs and freshly isolated epidermal LCs presented nonpeptide antigens of Mycobacterium leprae to T cell(More)
The antigen 85 (ag85) complex, composed of three proteins (ag85A, B and C), is a major protein component of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis cell wall. Each protein possesses a mycolyltransferase activity required for the biogenesis of trehalose dimycolate (cord factor), a dominant structure necessary for maintaining cell wall integrity. The crystal structure(More)
Trends in increased tuberculosis infection and a fatality rate of approximately 23% have necessitated the search for alternative biomarkers using newly developed postgenomic approaches. Here we provide a systematic analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) by directly profiling its gene products. This analysis combines high-throughput proteomics and(More)
Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a facultative intracellular pathogen that parasitizes macrophages by modulating properties of the Mycobacterium-containing phagosome. Mycobacterial phagosomes do not fuse with late endosomal/lysosomal organelles but retain access to early endosomal contents by an unknown mechanism. We have previously reported that mycobacterial(More)