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In 1953 Medawar pointed out that survival of the genetically disparate (allogeneic) mammalian conceptus contradicts the laws of tissue transplantation. Rapid T cell-induced rejection of all allogeneic concepti occurred when pregnant mice were treated with a pharmacologic inhibitor of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), a tryptophan-catabolizing enzyme(More)
We have recently shown that expression of the enzyme indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase (IDO) during murine pregnancy is required to prevent rejection of the allogeneic fetus by maternal T cells. In addition to their role in pregnancy, IDO-expressing cells are widely distributed in primary and secondary lymphoid organs. Here we show that monocytes that have(More)
The mechanisms of induction and maintenance of tolerance in self-reactive T cells in the periphery are poorly understood. Current models assume that successful T cell activation only occurs if ligation of the T cell receptor (signal 1) by antigen presenting cells (APCs) is accompanied by a costimulatory signal (signal 2), and that signal 1 in the absence of(More)
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