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It is hardly possible to overrate the value...of placing human beings in contact with persons dissimilar to themselves, and with modes of thought and action unlike those with which they are familiar... Such communication has always been, and is peculiarly in the present age, one of the primary sources of progress. This paper provides a brief introduction to(More)
Although conventional economic theory proposes that only the absolute levels of income and consumption matter for people's utility, there is much evidence that relative concerns are often important. This paper uses a survey-experimental method to measure people's perceptions of the degree to which such concerns matter, i.e. the degree of positionality.(More)
Recent family and twin study findings suggest that ADHD when comorbid with conduct problems may represent a particularly familial and heritable form of ADHD. Although several independent groups have shown association between the DRD4 7 repeat allele and ADHD, others have failed to replicate this finding. Previous TDT analyses of UK and Eire samples had also(More)
We present a model where groups attempt to exert influence on policies using both bribes (plata, Spanish for silver) and the threat of punishment (plomo, Spanish for lead). We then use it to make predictions about the quality of a country's public officials and to understand the role of institutions granting politicians with immunity from legal prosecution.(More)
Chronic pain is a global public health problem, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are not fully understood. Here we examine genome-wide DNA methylation, first in 50 identical twins discordant for heat pain sensitivity and then in 50 further unrelated individuals. Whole-blood DNA methylation was characterized at 5.2 million loci by MeDIP sequencing and(More)
What rule is fair? This experimental study considers equality and equity (i.e., allocations that are proportional to individual contributions). Impersonal third parties, or spectators, favor equity. Distributive preferences move progressively toward equality, however, with the introduction of personal factors, such as sharing stakes with another (i.e.,(More)
A nice suit is one that compares favorably with those worn by others in the same local environment. More generally, a positional good is one whose utility depends on how it compares with others in the same category. 2 A positional externality occurs when new purchases alter the relevant context within which an existing positional good is evaluated. 3 For(More)
"In the case of any person whose judgement is really deserving of confidence, how has it become so? Because he has kept his mind open to criticism of his opinions and conduct. Because it has been his practice to listen to all that could be said against him: to profit by as much of it as was just, and expound to himself, and upon occasion to others, the(More)